pediagenosis: Abdomen
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Showing posts with label Abdomen. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Abdomen. Show all posts

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

DIAPHRAGM Anatomy

DIAPHRAGM Anatomy


DIAPHRAGM Anatomy
The diaphragm is a musculotendinous partition separating the thoracic and abdominal cavities. Its periphery consists of skeletal muscle fibres, which merge centrally with an aponeurotic tendon (Fig. 4.104). The diaphragm has a pronounced convexity towards the thorax and has two domes or cupolas, the right usually lying at a higher level than the left (Figs 4.105 & 4.106).
Posterior Abdominal Wall Anatomy

Posterior Abdominal Wall Anatomy


Posterior Abdominal Wall Anatomy
Posterior to the abdominal cavity lie the lumbar spine, the psoas, iliacus and quadratus lumborum muscles, and associated fasciae and nerves (Fig. 4.99). The posterior abdominal wall extends inferiorly to the pelvic brim and superiorly to the attachment of the diaphragm (p. 203), while laterally it merges with the anterolateral abdominal wall. The lumbar spine and the postvertebral muscles (erector spinae) are considered in Chapter 8.
Autonomic Nerves of the Abdomen Anatomy

Autonomic Nerves of the Abdomen Anatomy


Autonomic Nerves of the Abdomen Anatomy
The autonomic innervation to the abdominal viscera is provided by perivascular plexuses of nerves accompanying the arterial supply to each organ. The plexuses comprise sympathetic and parasympathetic fibres of both motor and sensory type. The autonomic nerves control glandular secretion, smooth muscle activity and vasomotor tone; they are also sensory, mediating the distension of hollow organs and the tension on mesenteries.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Inferior Vena Cava Anatomy

Inferior Vena Cava Anatomy


Inferior Vena Cava Anatomy
The inferior vena cava is formed at the level of the fifth lumbar vertebra, a little to the right of the midline (Fig. 4.91). It ascends the posterior abdominal wall and pierces the central tendon of the diaphragm to enter the thorax at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra (Fig. 4.92).
Lymphatics of the Abdomen Anatomy

Lymphatics of the Abdomen Anatomy


Lymphatics of the Abdomen Anatomy
The lymphatic vessels and nodes of the abdomen drain the abdominal and pelvic organs as well as the pelvic walls and the lower part of the abdominal wall. (The upper part of the abdominal wall is drained by the internal thoracic and axillary nodes; p. 145.) In addition, the abdominal lymphatics receive lymph from the lower limb, the gonads and the perineum.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Abdominal Aorta

Abdominal Aorta


Abdominal Aorta
The aorta enters the abdomen behind the median arcuate ligament of the diaphragm at the level of the twelfth thoracic vertebra. It descends behind the peritoneum, inclining slightly to the left of the midline to its bifurcation in front of the fourth lumbar vertebra (Fig. 4.89). Throughout its course, the abdominal aorta is accompanied by lymph vessels and nodes and is surrounded by a plexus of autonomic nerves (pp 196–199).
Iliac Vessels

Iliac Vessels


Iliac Vessels
Common and external iliac vessels
The aortic bifurcation gives rise to the two common iliac arteries, which incline down- wards and laterally on the medial aspects of psoas major (Fig. 4.90). The vessels terminate in front of the sacroiliac joints by dividing into internal and external iliac arteries. The right common iliac artery crosses in front of the left common iliac vein, while that on the left is crossed by the inferior mesenteric vessels. The ureter crosses either the lower end of the common iliac artery or the commencement of its external branch (Fig. 4.90). The internal iliac artery begins at the bifurcation of the common iliac artery and descends on the lateral wall of the pelvis (p. 238).
Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands

Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands


Kidneys and Suprarenal Glands
Kidneys
The two kidneys lie behind the peritoneum on either side of the upper lumbar vertebrae (Fig. 4.79). They are embedded in fat in the paravertebral gutters of the posterior abdominal wall and are placed obliquely, with their anterior surfaces directed slightly laterally (Fig. 4.80). The left kidney usually lies at a higher level than the right.

Friday, January 24, 2020

Liver Anatomy

Liver Anatomy


Liver Anatomy
The liver is the largest organ in the body and lies in the upper part of the abdominal cavity just beneath the diaphragm and mostly under cover of the ribs. It fills the right hypochondrium and extends across the epigastrium into the left hypochondrium. The living organ is reddish-brown and very soft and delicate.
JEJUNUM AND ILEUM ANATOMY

JEJUNUM AND ILEUM ANATOMY


Jejunum and Ileum Anatomy
The jejunum and ileum constitute the major part of the small intestine. The jejunum commences at the duodenojejunal flexure and the ileum terminates at the ileocaecal junction. Between these two sites, the small intestine is about 5 or 6 m long and forms numerous loops that fill most of the infracolic compartment of the abdomen (Figs 4.41 & 4.63). By convention, the proximal two-fifths are called the jejunum and the remainder the ileum. However, no precise anatomical feature marks the junction between the two, there being a gradual morphological transition along the whole length of the small intestine.
Pancreas Anatomy

Pancreas Anatomy


Pancreas Anatomy
The pancreas is both an exocrine and an endocrine gland. Most of its substance is involved in producing pancreatic juice, which is conveyed by a duct system into the descending duodenum. In addition, microscopic clumps of endocrine tissue, the pancreatic islets (islets of Langerhans), are dispersed throughout the gland.
Portal Venous System Anatomy

Portal Venous System Anatomy


Portal Venous System Anatomy
The hepatic portal venous system drains blood from most of the alimentary tract (including the abdominal oesophagus, stomach, small and large intestines), pancreas and spleen. Blood from these organs is drained by the superior mesenteric and splenic veins which unite to form the portal vein (Fig. 4.77). This large vein approaches the porta hepatis with the proper hepatic artery, and branches of both vessels enter the liver and further subdivide. The liver is a common site of secondary infection or cancer because blood is conveyed to it from so many other organs. After traversing the liver, blood from both sources is drained by the hepatic veins, which enter the inferior vena cava (Fig. 4.92).
Caecum, Appendix and Colon Anatomy

Caecum, Appendix and Colon Anatomy


Caecum, Appendix and Colon Anatomy
The large intestine is approximately 1.5 m long and comprises the caecum, appendix, colon, rectum and anal canal. The caecum and appendix lie in the right iliac fossa, while the colon runs a circuitous course (Figs 4.68–4.70) before descending into the pelvic cavity to become continuous with the rectum. Descriptions of the rectum and anal canal are given in Chapter 5.

Thursday, November 21, 2019

Spleen Anatomy

Spleen Anatomy


Spleen Anatomy
The spleen is a lymphoid organ lying in the left hypochondrium posterior to the stomach. The fresh spleen is purple in colour and variable in size and shape. Since it lies entirely behind the midaxillary line and under cover of the left lower ribs, the normal spleen cannot be palpated in the living subject, even during full inspiration. The spleen is soft and very vascular and can be damaged by blunt or penetrating injuries resulting in life-threatening intra-peritoneal haemorrhage. The blood may irritate the peritoneum lining the abdominal surface of the diaphragm, producing pain referred to the left shoulder region (p. 205).
Stomach Anatomy

Stomach Anatomy


Stomach Anatomy
The stomach is the dilated portion of the gut, in which the early stages of digestion take place. It lies in the upper part of the abdomen beneath the left dome of the diaphragm (Fig. 4.39). Proximally, the stomach joins the oesophagus at the cardiac orifice and distally, it is continuous with the duodenum at the pylorus. Between these two relatively fixed points, the organ varies considerably in size, shape and location in response to its muscle tone, the quantity and nature of its contents and the position of the individual (Figs 4.41 & 4.42). Usually, the loaded stomach is J-shaped and lies in the left hypochondrium, the epigastrium and umbilical region of the abdomen.
Duodenum Anatomy

Duodenum Anatomy


Duodenum Anatomy
The duodenum, the proximal portion of the small intestine, begins at the pylorus and terminates at the duodenojejunal flexure. Deeply placed in the epigastric and umbilical regions of the abdomen, it curves round the head of the pancreas and is shaped like the letter ‘C’ (Fig. 4.49). Unlike the remainder of the small intestine, the duodenum is mostly retroperitoneal and therefore relatively immobile. The duodenal lumen receives bile and pancreatic secretions via the bile duct and the pancreatic ducts.

Tuesday, June 4, 2019

Peritoneum Anatomy

Peritoneum Anatomy


Peritoneum Anatomy
The peritoneum is a serous membrane with parietal and visceral layers, which encloses a space, the peritoneal cavity. The parietal peritoneum lines the walls of the abdomen and pelvis, while the visceral layer covers many of the abdominal and pelvic organs. In the male, the peritoneal cavity is a closed sac, but in the female, it communicates with the interior of the uterus and vagina via a microscopic channel through each uterine tube. Normally, the peritoneal cavity contains only a few millilitres (mL) of serous fluid, but in certain diseases, serous fluid can accumulate (ascites), sometimes up to several litres.
Scrotum Anatomy

Scrotum Anatomy


Scrotum Anatomy
The scrotum is a pouch of skin and fascia derived from the anterior abdominal wall and contains the testes, epididymides and the lower parts of the spermatic cords (Fig. 4.25).
Inguinal Canal Anatomy

Inguinal Canal Anatomy


Inguinal Canal Anatomy
The inguinal canal is about 4 cm long and passes obliquely through the flat muscles of the abdominal wall just above the medial half of the inguinal ligament (Fig. 4.19). In the male, the canal conveys the spermatic cord (comprising the ductus [vas] deferens and the vessels and nerves of the testis). In the female, the canal is narrower and contains the round ligament of the uterus.
Anterior Abdominal Wall Anatomy

Anterior Abdominal Wall Anatomy


Anterior Abdominal Wall Anatomy
The skin and subcutaneous tissue of the anterior abdominal wall overlie four muscles that move the trunk, control intra-abdominal pressure and support the abdominal contents. The main nerves and blood vessels lie in the neurovascular plane, deep to all but one of the muscles. Deep to the muscles are the transversalis fascia, extraperitoneal fat and the parietal peritoneum.

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