pediagenosis: BackSpinalCord
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Showing posts with label BackSpinalCord. Show all posts
Showing posts with label BackSpinalCord. Show all posts

Monday, May 3, 2021

Vertebrae and Joints Anatomy

Vertebrae and Joints Anatomy


Vertebrae and Joints Anatomy
Cervical vertebrae
The seven cervical vertebrae are relatively small and enclose a wide vertebral canal with adequate space for the cervical part of the spinal cord. Each transverse process is perforated by a foramen transversarium transmitting the vertebral vessels. The spinous processes all give attachment to a strong midline elastic ligament, the ligamentum nuchae.
Four of the cervical vertebrae (numbers 3–6) have a typical appearance whereas the first, second and seventh are modified. The typical vertebrae (Fig. 8.11) possess short bifid spines and their transverse processes have anterior and posterior tubercles. Often the upper and lower surfaces of the vertebral bodies are not flat but curve upwards at their lateral edges. The facets on the superior articular processes face obliquely backwards and upwards and therefore rotation and lateral flexion always occur together.

The first cervical vertebra, the atlas (Fig. 8.12), has anterior and posterior arches, relatively large transverse processes and two lateral masses. The atlas has no body and its spinous process is represented by a tubercle. On the superior surface of each lateral mass is a concave facet, which articulates with the convex occipital condyle of the skull. The atlantooccipital joints permit flexion and extension (nodding movements).
Muscles Anatomy

Muscles Anatomy


Muscles Anatomy
The muscles of the erector spinae group are covered in the lumbar region by the thoracolumbar fascia, in the lumbar and thoracic regions by the serratus posterior muscles and in the neck by the splenius muscles.
In the lumbar region, the thoracolumbar fascia is trilaminar and encloses erector spinae posteriorly and quadratus lumborum anteriorly (Fig. 8.28). At the lateral margins of both muscles, the laminae of the fascia fuse and give attachment to the transversus abdominis (Fig. 8.28).
Serratus posterior superior and inferior (Figs 8.29 & 8.30) are weak respiratory muscles, which connect lower cervical and upper thoracic spines with upper ribs, and lower thoracic and upper lumbar spines with lower ribs, respectively. They are supplied by branches of anterior rami of thoracic spinal nerves (intercostal nerves).


Splenius muscles
Splenius (Fig. 8.31) attaches medially to the lower part of the ligamentum nuchae and to the upper thoracic spinous processes. The superior part, splenius capitis, attaches laterally to the mastoid process and superior nuchal line. The inferior part, splenius cervicis, attaches laterally to the transverse processes of the upper cervical vertebrae.
Spinal Cord Anatomy

Spinal Cord Anatomy


Spinal Cord Anatomy
Surface features
At the level of the upper border of the atlas, the spinal cord is directly continuous with the medulla oblongata. Inferiorly, the cord usually extends as far as the first lumbar intervertebral disc, where it terminates as the conus medullaris. In transverse section, the spinal cord is oval, with its smaller diameter anteroposteriorly. The cord is especially wide at the cervical and lumbar enlargements due to increased numbers of nerve cell bodies within the spinal cord, which innervate the upper and lower limbs.
On the anterior aspect of the cord lies the anterior median fissure, whereas posteriorly, there is a relatively shallow posterior median sulcus. On each side, a posterolateral sulcus marks the site of attachment of the posterior nerve roots.

The spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by anterior and posterior nerve roots

Spinal nerve roots
The spinal nerves are attached to the spinal cord by anterior and posterior nerve roots (Fig. 8.36). The region of the spinal cord to which one pair of anterior and posterior nerve roots attaches is called a spinal segment (Table 8.3).

Sunday, September 13, 2020

Lumbar Vertebrae Anatomy

Lumbar Vertebrae Anatomy

Lumbar Vertebrae Anatomy,

Vertebral body, Lumbar vertebrae lateral view, Vertebral body of LI, Spinous process, lntervertebral disc, Zygapophysial joint, Vertebral body of LV, Spinous process, Lumbar region of vertebral column. T1 -weighted MR irnage in sagittal plane, Spinal nerve, Vertebral body of LI, Pedicle, lntervertebral foramen, lntervertebral disc space, lntervertebral foramen, Inferior articular process, Superior articular process, lntervertebral disc, Vertebral body of LV, lntervertebral fora min a of lumbar region of vertebral column. Tl -weighted MR irnage in sagittal plane, Lumbar region of vertebral column. Radiograph, lateral view

Thoracic Vertebrae Anatomy

Thoracic Vertebrae Anatomy

Thoracic Vertebrae Anatomy,

Vertebral body of Tl, lntervertebral foramen, lntervertebral disc, lntervertebral disc, Spinous process, Vertebral body of TIX (with compression fracture), Vertebral body of TXII, Thoracic vertebrae lateral view, Demifacet for articulation with head of rib Ill, Transverse process, Body, Spinous process, TIii vertebra superior view, Thoracic region of vertebral column. T2-weighted MR image in sagittal plane (compression fracture TIX), Superior articular process, Superior vertebral notch, Demifacet for articulation with head of rib Ill \ Body, Pedicle, Inferior vertebral notch, Facet for articulation with tubercle of rib Ill, Superior articular facet, Facet for articulation, with tubercle of rib Ill, Inferior articular process, TIii vertebra lateral view.

Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy

Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy

Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy,

Anterior tubercle of Cl (atlas), Posteriortubercle of Cl (atlas), Lateral atlanto-axial joint, lntervertebral disc, CIII, Dens of CII (axis), Body of CII (axis), Posterior  tubercle of Cl (atlas), Spinous process of CII (axis), Spinal cord, Column of articular processes, lntervertebral foramen (carotid tubercle), Foramen transversarium, Cervical vertebrae lateral view, Cervical region of vertebral column. Radiograph, AP view, Vertebra, Vertebral body ofCVII, Cervical region of vertebral column. Tl-weighted MR image In the sagittal plane, Vertebra prominens (spi nous process of CVII) Anterior tubercle of Cl (atlas), Spinous process ofCIII, Vertebral body of CII (axis)-i lntervertebral disc space, Vertebra prominens, Rib I, Vertebral body of CVII, Cervical region of vertebral column. Radiograph, lateral view prominens (spinous process of CVII), Posterior tubercle of Cl (atlas) Spinous process of CII (axis), Vertebra prominens (spinous process of CVII).

 Regional vertebrae Anatomy

Regional vertebrae Anatomy

 Regional vertebrae Anatomy,

Vertebral foramen, Superior articular process, CV vertebra, Vertebral body, TV vertebra, Vertebral foramen, Vertebral body, LIii vertebra, Inferior articular process, Foramen transversarium, Transverse process, Facet for articulation, with tubercle of rib V, Inferior articular process, Spinous process, Demifacet for articulation with head of rib V, 7 cervical vertebrae m(CI-CVII), 12 thoracic vertebrae (TI-TXII), 5 lumbar vertebrae (ll-LV), Sacrum (5 fused sacral vertebrae 1-V) Coccyx (3-4 fused coccygeal vertebrae I-IV).

 Surface anatomy

Surface anatomy

Surface anatomy, 

Ligamentum nuchae, acromion of scapula, Vertebra prominens spinous process of CVII), Spine of scapula, Spi nous process ofTXII, Iliac crest, Sacral dimple at posterior superior iliac spine, lntergluteal cleft,

Tuesday, November 26, 2019

Meninges Anatomy

Meninges Anatomy


Meninges Anatomy
The spinal cord is surrounded by three membranes (dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater; Fig. 8.34), which are continuous through the foramen magnum with the cranial meninges.

Wednesday, June 12, 2019

Spinal Cord

Spinal Cord


Spinal Cord
Surface features
At the level of the upper border of the atlas, the spinal cord is directly continuous with the medulla oblongata. Inferiorly, the cord usually extends as far as the first lumbar intervertebral disc, where it terminates as the conus medullaris. In transverse section, the spinal cord is oval, with its smaller diameter anteroposteriorly. The cord is especially wide at the cervical and lumbar enlargements due to increased numbers of nerve cell bodies within the spinal cord, which innervate the upper and lower limbs.
Meninges

Meninges


Meninges
The spinal cord is surrounded by three membranes (dura mater, arachnoid mater and pia mater; Fig. 8.34), which are continuous through the foramen magnum with the cranial meninges.
Muscles

Muscles


Muscles
The muscles of the erector spinae group are covered in the lumbar region by the thoracolumbar fascia, in the lumbar and thoracic regions by the serratus posterior muscles and in the neck by the splenius muscles.
Vertebrae and Joints

Vertebrae and Joints


Vertebrae and Joints
Cervical vertebrae
The seven cervical vertebrae are relatively small and enclose a wide vertebral canal with adequate space for the cervical part of the spinal cord. Each transverse process is perforated by a foramen transversarium transmitting the vertebral vessels. The spinous processes all give attachment to a strong midline elastic ligament, the ligamentum nuchae.

Thursday, December 6, 2018

Spinal Cord Cross Sections: Fiber Tracts Anatomy

Spinal Cord Cross Sections: Fiber Tracts Anatomy


Spinal Cord Cross Sections: Fiber Tracts Anatomy
Posterior median sulcus, Posterior intermediate sulcus, Posterior lateral sulcus, Gelatinous substance, Posterior horn, Commissure, Anterior horn, Anterior lateral sulcus, Anterior median fissure Gray matter C5 T2 L1 L2 S2 T8 S3, White matter, Lateral horn (intermediolateral nucleus), Anterior white commissure.
Sympathetic Nervous System: General Topography Anatomy

Sympathetic Nervous System: General Topography Anatomy


Sympathetic Nervous System: General Topography Anatomy
Superior hypogastric plexus, Hypogastric nerve, Inferior hypogastric plexus, Sacral splanchnic nerves, Aorticorenal ganglion, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, Lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve, External carotid nerve, Cervical cardiac nerves, Celiac plexus, Celiac ganglion, Superior mesenteric ganglion, Superior mesenteric plexus
Vertebral Ligaments Anatomy

Vertebral Ligaments Anatomy


Vertebral Ligaments Anatomy
Superior costotransverse, ligament (cut), Thoracic vertebrae, transverse section: superior view, Costotransverse, Lateral ligament costotransverse ligament, Synovial cavities, Superior articular facet on head of rib, Intraarticular ligament,

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