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Showing posts with label HeadNeck. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HeadNeck. Show all posts

Wednesday, May 5, 2021

Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy

Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy


Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy
The pterygopalatine fossa lies between the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone posteriorly, the palatine bone medially and the maxilla anteriorly (Fig. 7.43). It is slit-like and opens laterally through the pterygomaxillary fissure into the infratemporal fossa. 
It contains part of the maxillary (V2) division of the trigeminal nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion and its branches and the termination of the maxillary artery, together with accompanying veins and lymphatics. The pterygopalatine fossa communicates with the middle cranial fossa through the foramen rotundum, with the foramen lacerum through the pterygoid canal, with the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure, with the walls of the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine foramen and with the palate via the greater and lesser palatine canals.

Maxillary (V2) division of the trigeminal nerve
The maxillary division (Fig. 7.44) leaves the cranial cavity through the foramen rotun- dum, crosses the pterygopalatine fossa and continues forwards through the inferior orbital fissure into the orbit. It terminates as the infraorbital nerve, which traverses the infraorbital canal to reach the face. The maxillary division has several branches arising in the pterygopalatine fossa and the floor of the orbit. In the pterygopalatine fossa (Fig. 7.45), two branches suspend the pterygopalatine ganglion from the parent nerve. Also arising in the fossa are the posterior superior alveolar nerves (Figs 7.44 & 7.45), which descend in the posterior wall of the maxillary air sinus to reach the upper molar teeth. In the floor of the orbit, the middle and anterior superior alveolar nerves (Fig. 7.44) arise and descend in the lateral and anterior walls of the maxilla. Collectively, the superior alveolar nerves supply the maxilla and its air sinus, the alveolar ridge and all the upper teeth. The zygomatic nerve (Fig. 7.44) also arises in the floor of the orbit and ascends on the lateral wall, dividing into zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticofacial nerves. These branches pierce the zygomatic bone to supply the overlying facial skin. A branch from the zygomaticotemporal nerve conveys postganglionic parasympathetic fibres from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland. The infraorbital nerve (Fig. 7.44) emerges onto the face through the infraorbital foramen and supplies the skin of the cheek, lower eyelid, upper lip and lateral surface of the external nose.
Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Air Sinuses Anatomy

Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Air Sinuses Anatomy

Nasal cavities
The paired nasal cavities lie centrally within the facial skeleton, medial to the orbits and the maxillary air sinuses (Fig. 7.47). They are separated from the oral cavity by the palate, from the anterior cranial fossa by the cribriform plates and from each other by the midline nasal septum. Anteriorly, the cavities lead into the vestibules, which are surrounded by the cartilaginous external nose and open onto the face at the nostrils. 
Posteriorly, the nasal cavities are limited by the free edge of the nasal septum at the choanae (posterior nasal apertures), which open into the nasopharynx. Each cavity is partially subdivided by three shelf-like projections from the lateral wall, the superior, middle and inferior conchae (turbinates Fig. 7.48). The parts of the nasal cavity beneath each of these are called correspondingly the superior, middle and inferior meatuses, while above the superior concha is the sphenoeth-moidal recess. Into this recess and the meatuses drain the paranasal air sinuses and the nasolacrimal duct. Respiratory epithelium lines the cavity and paranasal air sinuses while the vestibule has a stratified squamous epithelium bearing nasal vibrissae (hairs).
Coronal section showing the orbits and nasal cavities. Posterior aspect.

Fig. 7.47 Coronal section showing the orbits and nasal cavities. Posterior aspect. (Compare Figs 7.84 & 7.92.)

Bony walls
The medial wall is the nasal septum (Fig. 7.49), common to both cavities and formed superiorly by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid. This plate continues upwards as the crista galli, which projects into the anterior cranial fossa. The bony septum is completed posteroinferiorly by the vomer. Anteriorly, the septum is composed of hyaline cartilage which extends into the external nose.
Palate Anatomy

Palate Anatomy


Palate Anatomy
The palate consists of hard and soft parts covered by mucous membrane (Fig. 7.55). The hard palate separates the oral and nasal cavities while posteriorly the soft palate separates the nasopharynx from the oropharynx.

Hard palate
The bones that comprise the hard palate are the palatine processes of the maxillae anteriorly and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones posteriorly (Fig. 7.82). The hard palate is bounded in front and laterally by the superior alveolar ridge. The soft palate is attached to the free posterior border of the hard palate. Sensory fibres reach the palate in branches of the maxillary (V2) division of the trigeminal nerve. The nasopalatine nerve emerges from the incisive foramen and supplies the anterior part of the hard palate. The greater palatine nerve gains the hard palate via the greater palatine foramen and innervates its posterior portion.

Thursday, April 8, 2021

Skull of Newborn Anatomy

Skull of Newborn Anatomy

Skull of Newborn Anatomy


Skull of Newborn Anatomy


Lateral view : Sphenoidal fontanelle, Frontal bone, Squamous part, Supraorbital notch (foramen), Ethmoid bone, Anterior ethmoidal foramen, Orbital plate, Lacrimal bone, Nasal bone, Maxillary bone, Infraorbital foramen, Zygomatic bone, Zygomaticofacial foramen, Palatine bone, Pyramidal process. Parietal bone, Parietal eminence, Squamous suture, Posterior fontanelle, Lambdoid suture, Occipital bone.
Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy


Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Incisive fossa, Greater palatine foramen, Foramen ovale, Foramen spinosum, Tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Inferior tympanic canaliculus, Chorda tympani of intermediate nerve (CN VII), Mastoid canaliculus, Mastoid foramen, Jugular fossa, Hypoglossal canal, Foramen magnum, Nasopalatine nerve
Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy


Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy
Frontal bone ( Groove for superior sagittal sinus, Frontal crest, Groove for anterior meningeal vessels, Foramen cecum, Superior surface of orbital part). Ethmoid bone, Crista galli, Cribriform plate. Sphenoid bone, Lesser wing, Anterior clinoid process, Greater wing, Groove for middle meningeal vessels (frontal branches), Yoke, Prechiasmatic groove, Tuberculum sellae, Hypophyseal fossa, Dorsum sellae, Posterior clinoid process, Carotid groove (for int. carotid a.), Clivus.

Tuesday, April 6, 2021

Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy


Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy
Maxillary bone: Incisive fossa, Palatine process, Intermaxillary suture, Zygomatic process. Zygomatic bone, Frontal bone, Sphenoid bone ( Pterygoid process, Hamulus, Medial plate, Pterygoid fossa, Lateral plate, Scaphoid fossa, Greater wing, Foramen ovale, Foramen spinosum, Spine). Temporal bone ( Zygomatic process, Articular tubercle, Mandibular fossa, Styloid process, Petrotympanic fissure, Carotid canal (external opening), Inferior tympanic canaliculus, External acoustic meatus, Mastoid canaliculus, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Petrous part, Mastoid notch, Groove for occipital artery, Jugular fossa, (jugular foramen in its depth), Mastoid foramen.

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