pediagenosis: HeadNeck
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Showing posts with label HeadNeck. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HeadNeck. Show all posts

Tuesday, June 11, 2019

Parotid Gland

Parotid Gland


Parotid Gland
The parotid is the largest of the salivary glands and is pyramidal in shape (Fig. 7.25). Its base faces laterally between the anterior border of sternocleidomastoid and the ramus of the mandible, while its apex lies deeply against the styloid process. The gland extends upwards between the external acoustic meatus and the temporomandibular joint, movements of which may be painful when the parotid is inflamed.
Superficial Structures of the Face and Scalp

Superficial Structures of the Face and Scalp


Superficial Structures of the Face and Scalp
The subcutaneous tissue of the face and scalp is highly vascular and is traversed by several nerves. Most of the nerves are sensory to skin and include branches of the trigeminal (V) and upper cervical spinal nerves. In addition, there are branches that are motor from the facial (VII) nerve to a group of muscles in the subcutaneous tissues of the face, scalp and front of the neck, known as the muscles of facial expression.
Contents of the Carotid Sheath

Contents of the Carotid Sheath


Contents of the Carotid Sheath
The carotid sheaths form part of the fascial layers of the neck (pp 324, 325) and extend from the base of the skull into the superior mediastinum. Each sheath contains the common, the internal and part of the external carotid arteries, the internal jugular vein and parts of the glossopharyngeal (IX), vagus (X) and accessory (XI) nerves.
Neck Anatomy

Neck Anatomy


Neck Anatomy
Fascial layers
These are complex and are divided into four components: investing fascia, prevertebral fascia, pretracheal fascia and carotid sheaths (Fig. 7.5). The investing fascia is analogous to deep fascia in the limbs. Deep to the skin and superficial tissues, it surrounds the neck, extending from the pectoral girdle below to the base of the skull and mandible above, and splits to enclose trapezius and sternocleidomastoid. Superiorly, the investing fascia is attached to the superior nuchal lines and to the mastoid processes. Between the mastoid process and the angle of the mandible the fascia encloses the parotid gland. Its superficial layer passes superiorly over the surface of the gland to attach to the zygomatic arch; on its deep surface the fascia is thickened to form the stylomandibular ligament. Inferiorly, the investing fascia is attached to the spine of the scapula, the acromion, the superior border of the clavicle, and the manubrium.

Friday, May 31, 2019

Auditory Tube (Eustachian) Anatomy

Auditory Tube (Eustachian) Anatomy


Auditory Tube (Eustachian) Anatomy
Lateral pterygoid plate, Scaphoid fossa, Foramen ovale, Foramen spinosum, Spine of sphenoid bone, Mastoid process, Mandibular fossa, Stylomastoid foramen, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyle, Petrous part of temporal bone, 
Anatomy of the Pediatric Ear Anatomy

Anatomy of the Pediatric Ear Anatomy


Anatomy of the Pediatric Ear Anatomy
Pediatric ear: frontal section, Auditory tube (eustachian), Child, Auditory tube is shorter and more horizontal, Limbs of stapes, Facial nerve (CN VII) (cut), Prominence of lateral semicircular canal, Base of stapes in vestibular window, Vestibule, Semicircular ducts, ampullae, utricle, and saccule, Incus, Tegmen tympani, Malleus (head), 
Tympanic Cavity Anatomy

Tympanic Cavity Anatomy


Tympanic Cavity Anatomy
Lateral wall of tympanic cavity: medial (internal) view, Labyrinthine wall of tympanic cavity: lateral view, Head of malleus, Epitympanic recess, Anterior process of malleus, Chorda tympani, Anterior mallear fold, Tensor tympani muscle, Handle of malleus, Internal carotid artery, Superior ligament of malleus, Superior ligament of incus, Short limb of incus, 

Thursday, May 30, 2019

Fasciae of Orbit and Eyeball Anatomy

Fasciae of Orbit and Eyeball Anatomy


Fasciae of Orbit and Eyeball Anatomy
Horizontal section, Medial palpebral ligament, Nasal cavity, Ethmoidal cells, Periorbita, Sclera, Medial rectus muscle and fascial sheath, Bulbar sheath (Tenon’s capsule), Episcleral space, Sphenoidal sinus, Lacrimal gland, Periorbita, Sclera, Episcleral space, Infraorbital nerve (CN V2), Superior orbital fissure, Lacrimal nerve (CN V1), Frontal nerve (CN V1), Trochlear nerve (CN IV), Lateral rectus muscle, Inferior orbital fissure, Abducent nerve (CN VI), Nasociliary nerve (CN V1), Inferior branch of oculomotor nerve (CN III), Inferior rectus muscle, Optic nerve (CN II), Ophthalmic artery in optic canal, Medial rectus muscle, 
Afferent Innervation of Oral Cavity and Pharynx Anatomy

Afferent Innervation of Oral Cavity and Pharynx Anatomy


Afferent Innervation of Oral Cavity and Pharynx Anatomy
Trigeminal (CN V) (maxillary CN V2), Via superior alveolar nerves, Via pterygopalatine ganglion and nasopalatine and greater and lesser palatine nerves, Via greater petrosal nerve, pterygopalatine ganglion, and greater and lesser palatine nerves, Facial (CN VII) (intermediate nerve of Wrisberg), Glossopharyngeal (CN IX), Via pharyngeal plexus, Via tonsillar branches, Taste plus general sensation via lingual branches, Trigeminal (CN V) (maxillary CN V2), 
Opening of the Mandible Anatomy

Opening of the Mandible Anatomy


Opening of the Mandible Anatomy
Retrodiscal tissue (bilaminar zone), Retrodiscal tissue (bilaminar zone) expanded, Floor of middle cranial fossa, Superior head (cut), Inferior head, Articular disc (cut sagittally), Translation of condyle and ramus of mandible during opening of the mouth, 

Wednesday, May 29, 2019

Subclavian Artery Anatomy

Subclavian Artery Anatomy


Subclavian Artery Anatomy
Common origin of superficial cervical and dorsal scapular arteries from transverse cervical artery (˜30%), Inferior thyroid artery, Thyrocervical trunk, Suprascapular artery, Superficial branch of transverse cervical artery, Deep branch of transverse cervical artery (dorsal scapular artery), Transverse cervical artery, Right oblique schematic view, Vertebral artery, Deep cervical artery (ascending to anastomose with descending branch of occipital artery), 
Paranasal Sinuses Anatomy

Paranasal Sinuses Anatomy


Paranasal Sinuses Anatomy
Coronal section, Horizontal section, Brain, Falx cerebri, Nasal cavities, Nasal septum, Maxillary sinus, Inferior nasal concha, Hard palate, Oral cavity, Genioglossus muscle, Geniohyoid muscle, Mylohyoid muscle, Eyeball, Ethmoidal cells, Orbital fat and muscles, Sphenoidal sinuses, Optic chiasm, Nasal cavities, Frontal sinus, Olfactory bulbs, 
Musculature of Face Anatomy

Musculature of Face Anatomy


Musculature of Face Anatomy
Frontal belly of epicranius muscle, Procerus muscle, Temporal branches, Branches of facial nerve (CN VII), Levator labii superioris alaeque nasi muscle, Orbicularis oculi muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle, Risorius muscle, Depressor labii inferioris muscle, 
Muscles of Facial Expression: Anterior View Anatomy

Muscles of Facial Expression: Anterior View Anatomy


Muscles of Facial Expression: Anterior View Anatomy
Epicranial aponeurosis (galea aponeurotica), Frontal belly of epicranius muscle, Procerus muscle, Corrugator supercilii muscle, Orbital part, Palpebral part of orbicularis oculi muscle, Levator labii superioris muscle, Transverse part, Alar part of nasalis muscle, 
Atlantooccipital Junction Anatomy

Atlantooccipital Junction Anatomy


Atlantooccipital Junction Anatomy
Vertebral artery Hypoglossal canal, Posterior margin of foramen magnum, Posterior atlantooccipital membrane, Posterior arch of atlas (C1), Nuchal ligament, Ligamentum flavum, Posterior atlantoaxial membrane, Spinous process of axis (C2), Hypoplastic dens, Os odontoideum with fibrous union and narrowing of vertebral canal with head in extension, 
Degenerative Changes in Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy

Degenerative Changes in Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy


Degenerative Changes in Cervical Vertebrae Anatomy
Spinous process, Groove for spinal nerve on transverse process, Uncovertebral joint fused owing to extensive spondylophyte formation and ossification, Potential for compression of vertebral artery within transverse foramen, Vertebral body, Advanced ankylosing spondylitis with uncovertebral arthrosis in C4 and C5 C3 vertebral body (sectioned in coronal plane) C4, Degenerative changes in the cervical spine, 

Tuesday, May 28, 2019

Hypothalamus and Hypophysis Anatomy

Hypothalamus and Hypophysis Anatomy


Hypothalamus and Hypophysis Anatomy
Septum pellucidum, Thalamus, Fornix, Interthalamic adhesion, Hypothalamic sulcus, Anterior commissure, Paraventricular, Posterior, Dorsomedial, Supraoptic, Ventromedial, Arcuate (infundibular), Mammillary body, Principal, nuclei of hypothalamus, Optic chiasm, Infundibulum, Hypophysis (pituitary gland), Mammillothalamic tract (of Vicq d’Azyr), 
Subependymal Veins of Brain Anatomy

Subependymal Veins of Brain Anatomy


Subependymal Veins of Brain Anatomy
Lateral direct vein, Superior thalamic veins, Posterior veins of septum pellucidum, Superior choroid vein, Transverse veins of caudate nucleus, Superior thalamostriate vein, Lateral ventricle, Anterior vein of caudate nucleus, Vein of septum pellucidum, Genu of corpus callosum, Interventricular foramen (of Monro), Anterior commissure, Interthalamic adhesion, Anterior cerebral vein, Optic chiasm 3rd ventricle, Deep middle cerebral vein, 
Deep Veins of Brain Anatomy

Deep Veins of Brain Anatomy


Deep Veins of Brain Anatomy
Longitudinal cerebral fissure, Anterior cerebral veins and arteries, Septum pellucidum, Vein of septum pellucidum, Head of caudate nucleus, Anterior vein of caudate nucleus, Transverse veins of caudate nucleus, Interventricular foramen (of Monro), Columns of fornix, Superior thalamostriate vein, Rostrum of corpus callosum, Superior choroid vein and choroid plexus of lateral ventricle, Thalamus, Tela choroidea of 3rd ventricle, 

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