pediagenosis: HeadNeck
Article Update
Loading...
Showing posts with label HeadNeck. Show all posts
Showing posts with label HeadNeck. Show all posts

Tuesday, June 8, 2021

Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Sternohyoid muscle


1. Sternohyoid muscle

Origin: Manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle.

Insertion: Body of the hyoid bone.

Action: Depresses the hyoid bone after swallowing.

Innervation: C1, C2, and C3 from the ansa cervicalis.

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy


1. Sternocleidomastoid muscle

Origin (inferior attachment): This muscle has 2 heads of origin. The sternal head arises from the anterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum. The clavicular head arises from the superior surface of the medial third of the clavicle.

Insertion (superior attachment): Attaches to the lateral surface of the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the lateral half of the superior nuchal line.

Muscles of Pharynx Anatomy

Muscles of Pharynx Anatomy

Muscles of Pharynx Anatomy

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle


1. Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Origin: This broad muscle arises from the pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, posterior portion of the mylohyoid line of the mandible, and side of the tongue.

Insertion: The muscles from each side meet and attach to the median raphe of the pharynx and pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone.

Wednesday, June 2, 2021

Muscles of Facial Expression: Lateral View Anatomy

Muscles of Facial Expression: Lateral View Anatomy

Muscles of Facial Expression: Lateral View Anatomy
Muscles of Facial Expression: Lateral View Anatomy
Skin, Epicranial  aponeurosis, Temporal fascia, Auricularis anterior muscle, Auricularis superior muscle, Auricularis posterior muscle, Frontal belly of occipitofrontalis muscle, Procerus muscle, Masseteric fascia, Levator labii superioris muscle, Orbicularis oris muscle, Zygomaticus minor muscle Zygomaticus major muscle Orbicularis oris muscle, Mentalis muscle Modiolus (circled region).
Cervical Vertebrae: Uncovertebral Joints Anatomy

Cervical Vertebrae: Uncovertebral Joints Anatomy

Cervical Vertebrae: Uncovertebral Joints Anatomy
Cervical Vertebrae: Uncovertebral Joints Anatomy
Cervical vertebrae: anterior view: Dens of axis, Anterior arch of atlas, Transverse foramen, Intervertebral foramen (for C3 spinal nerve), Intervertebral disc, Vertebral body, Inferior articular process, Superior articular proce Groove for spinal nerve, Uncus, Inferior articular process (C3), Superior articular process (C4), Uncovertebral joints (clefts of Luschka), Nucleus  pulposus Transverse process, Intervertebral foramen (for C7 spinal nerve), Vertebral body (C7).
Mandible Anatomy

Mandible Anatomy

Mandible Anatomy  Condylar process, Mandible of aged person (edentulous), Coronoid process, Mylohyoid groove, Retromolar fossa, Oblique line, Submandibular fossa, Mylohyoid line, Sublingual fossa, Interalveolar septa, Alveolar part (crest), Mental foramen, Mental protuberance, Mental tubercle, Base of mandible, Coronoid process, Head, Neck, Mandibular notch, Pterygoid fovea, Mylohyoid line.  Pterygoid fovea, Mandibular notch, Lingula, Mandibular foramen, Condylar process, Lingula, Mandibular foramen, Mylohyoid groove, Sublingual fossa, Digastric fossa, Superior and inferior mental spines (genial tubercles).
Mandible Anatomy
Condylar process, Mandible of aged person (edentulous), Coronoid process, Mylohyoid groove, Retromolar fossa, Oblique line, Submandibular fossa, Mylohyoid line, Sublingual fossa, Interalveolar septa, Alveolar part (crest), Mental foramen, Mental protuberance, Mental tubercle, Base of mandible, Coronoid process, Head, Neck, Mandibular notch, Pterygoid fovea, Mylohyoid line.
Pterygoid Fossae Anatomy

Pterygoid Fossae Anatomy

Pterygoid Fossae Anatomy

Pterygoid Fossae Anatomy
Posterior view : External occipital protuberance (inion), External occipital crest, Inferior nuchal line, Foramen magnum, Inferior orbital fissure, Mastoid process, Styloid process, Pterygoid fossa, Zygomatic arch, Inferior concha, Horizontal plate of palatine bone, Tuberosity of maxillary bone, Palatine process of maxillary bone, Incisive fossa. Superior nuchal line, Nasal septum, Choana, Mastoid foramen, Occipitomastoid suture, Occipital condyle, Lateral pterygoid plate, Medial pterygoid plate, Pyramidal process of palatine bone, Pterygoid Hamulus, Alveolar process of maxillary bone.

Wednesday, May 5, 2021

Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy

Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy


Pterygopalatine Fossa Anatomy
The pterygopalatine fossa lies between the pterygoid process of the sphenoid bone posteriorly, the palatine bone medially and the maxilla anteriorly (Fig. 7.43). It is slit-like and opens laterally through the pterygomaxillary fissure into the infratemporal fossa. 
It contains part of the maxillary (V2) division of the trigeminal nerve, the pterygopalatine ganglion and its branches and the termination of the maxillary artery, together with accompanying veins and lymphatics. The pterygopalatine fossa communicates with the middle cranial fossa through the foramen rotundum, with the foramen lacerum through the pterygoid canal, with the orbit through the inferior orbital fissure, with the walls of the nasal cavity through the sphenopalatine foramen and with the palate via the greater and lesser palatine canals.

Maxillary (V2) division of the trigeminal nerve
The maxillary division (Fig. 7.44) leaves the cranial cavity through the foramen rotun- dum, crosses the pterygopalatine fossa and continues forwards through the inferior orbital fissure into the orbit. It terminates as the infraorbital nerve, which traverses the infraorbital canal to reach the face. The maxillary division has several branches arising in the pterygopalatine fossa and the floor of the orbit. In the pterygopalatine fossa (Fig. 7.45), two branches suspend the pterygopalatine ganglion from the parent nerve. Also arising in the fossa are the posterior superior alveolar nerves (Figs 7.44 & 7.45), which descend in the posterior wall of the maxillary air sinus to reach the upper molar teeth. In the floor of the orbit, the middle and anterior superior alveolar nerves (Fig. 7.44) arise and descend in the lateral and anterior walls of the maxilla. Collectively, the superior alveolar nerves supply the maxilla and its air sinus, the alveolar ridge and all the upper teeth. The zygomatic nerve (Fig. 7.44) also arises in the floor of the orbit and ascends on the lateral wall, dividing into zygomaticotemporal and zygomaticofacial nerves. These branches pierce the zygomatic bone to supply the overlying facial skin. A branch from the zygomaticotemporal nerve conveys postganglionic parasympathetic fibres from the pterygopalatine ganglion to the lacrimal gland. The infraorbital nerve (Fig. 7.44) emerges onto the face through the infraorbital foramen and supplies the skin of the cheek, lower eyelid, upper lip and lateral surface of the external nose.
Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Air Sinuses Anatomy

Nasal Cavities and Paranasal Air Sinuses Anatomy

Nasal cavities
The paired nasal cavities lie centrally within the facial skeleton, medial to the orbits and the maxillary air sinuses (Fig. 7.47). They are separated from the oral cavity by the palate, from the anterior cranial fossa by the cribriform plates and from each other by the midline nasal septum. Anteriorly, the cavities lead into the vestibules, which are surrounded by the cartilaginous external nose and open onto the face at the nostrils. 
Posteriorly, the nasal cavities are limited by the free edge of the nasal septum at the choanae (posterior nasal apertures), which open into the nasopharynx. Each cavity is partially subdivided by three shelf-like projections from the lateral wall, the superior, middle and inferior conchae (turbinates Fig. 7.48). The parts of the nasal cavity beneath each of these are called correspondingly the superior, middle and inferior meatuses, while above the superior concha is the sphenoeth-moidal recess. Into this recess and the meatuses drain the paranasal air sinuses and the nasolacrimal duct. Respiratory epithelium lines the cavity and paranasal air sinuses while the vestibule has a stratified squamous epithelium bearing nasal vibrissae (hairs).
Coronal section showing the orbits and nasal cavities. Posterior aspect.

Fig. 7.47 Coronal section showing the orbits and nasal cavities. Posterior aspect. (Compare Figs 7.84 & 7.92.)

Bony walls
The medial wall is the nasal septum (Fig. 7.49), common to both cavities and formed superiorly by the perpendicular plate of the ethmoid. This plate continues upwards as the crista galli, which projects into the anterior cranial fossa. The bony septum is completed posteroinferiorly by the vomer. Anteriorly, the septum is composed of hyaline cartilage which extends into the external nose.
Palate Anatomy

Palate Anatomy


Palate Anatomy
The palate consists of hard and soft parts covered by mucous membrane (Fig. 7.55). The hard palate separates the oral and nasal cavities while posteriorly the soft palate separates the nasopharynx from the oropharynx.

Hard palate
The bones that comprise the hard palate are the palatine processes of the maxillae anteriorly and the horizontal plates of the palatine bones posteriorly (Fig. 7.82). The hard palate is bounded in front and laterally by the superior alveolar ridge. The soft palate is attached to the free posterior border of the hard palate. Sensory fibres reach the palate in branches of the maxillary (V2) division of the trigeminal nerve. The nasopalatine nerve emerges from the incisive foramen and supplies the anterior part of the hard palate. The greater palatine nerve gains the hard palate via the greater palatine foramen and innervates its posterior portion.

Thursday, April 8, 2021

Skull of Newborn Anatomy

Skull of Newborn Anatomy

Skull of Newborn Anatomy


Skull of Newborn Anatomy


Lateral view : Sphenoidal fontanelle, Frontal bone, Squamous part, Supraorbital notch (foramen), Ethmoid bone, Anterior ethmoidal foramen, Orbital plate, Lacrimal bone, Nasal bone, Maxillary bone, Infraorbital foramen, Zygomatic bone, Zygomaticofacial foramen, Palatine bone, Pyramidal process. Parietal bone, Parietal eminence, Squamous suture, Posterior fontanelle, Lambdoid suture, Occipital bone.
Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy


Foramina and Canals of Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Incisive fossa, Greater palatine foramen, Foramen ovale, Foramen spinosum, Tympanic branch of glossopharyngeal nerve (CN IX) Inferior tympanic canaliculus, Chorda tympani of intermediate nerve (CN VII), Mastoid canaliculus, Mastoid foramen, Jugular fossa, Hypoglossal canal, Foramen magnum, Nasopalatine nerve
Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy


Cranial Base: Superior View Anatomy
Frontal bone ( Groove for superior sagittal sinus, Frontal crest, Groove for anterior meningeal vessels, Foramen cecum, Superior surface of orbital part). Ethmoid bone, Crista galli, Cribriform plate. Sphenoid bone, Lesser wing, Anterior clinoid process, Greater wing, Groove for middle meningeal vessels (frontal branches), Yoke, Prechiasmatic groove, Tuberculum sellae, Hypophyseal fossa, Dorsum sellae, Posterior clinoid process, Carotid groove (for int. carotid a.), Clivus.

Tuesday, April 6, 2021

Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy

Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy


Cranial Base: Inferior View Anatomy
Maxillary bone: Incisive fossa, Palatine process, Intermaxillary suture, Zygomatic process. Zygomatic bone, Frontal bone, Sphenoid bone ( Pterygoid process, Hamulus, Medial plate, Pterygoid fossa, Lateral plate, Scaphoid fossa, Greater wing, Foramen ovale, Foramen spinosum, Spine). Temporal bone ( Zygomatic process, Articular tubercle, Mandibular fossa, Styloid process, Petrotympanic fissure, Carotid canal (external opening), Inferior tympanic canaliculus, External acoustic meatus, Mastoid canaliculus, Mastoid process, Stylomastoid foramen, Petrous part, Mastoid notch, Groove for occipital artery, Jugular fossa, (jugular foramen in its depth), Mastoid foramen.
Calvaria Anatomy

Calvaria Anatomy

Calvaria Anatomy


Calvaria  Superior view : Frontal bone, Coronal suture, Bregma, Parietal bone, Sagittal suture, Parietal foramen (for emissary vein), Lambda, Sutural (wormian) bone, Lambdoid suture, Occipital bone.  Inferior view : Frontal bone, Frontal crest, Groove for superior sagittal sinus, Coronal suture, Parietal bone, Granular foveolae (for arachnoid granulations), Diploƫ, Grooves for branches of middle meningeal vessels, Sagittal suture, Groove for superior sagittal sinus, Lambdoid suture, Occipital bone.
Superior view : Frontal bone, Coronal suture, Bregma, Parietal bone, Sagittal suture, Parietal foramen (for emissary vein), Lambda, Sutural (wormian) bone, Lambdoid suture, Occipital bone.
Skull: Midsagittal Section Anatomy

Skull: Midsagittal Section Anatomy

Skull: Midsagittal Section Anatomy
Sphenoid bone : Greater wing, Lesser wing, Optic canal, Sella turcica, Anterior clinoid process, Sphenoidal sinus, Body, Medial and lateral plates of pterygoid process.
Skull: Midsagittal Section Anatomy
Temporal bone : Squamous part, Petrous part, Internal acoustic meatus, Lambdoid suture, Groove for superior petrosal sinus, Opening of vestibular aqueduct, Groove for sigmoid sinus, Occipital bone, Groove for transverse sinus, External occipital protuberance (inion), Jugular foramen, Groove for inferior petrosal sinus, Hypoglossal canal, Foramen magnum, Occipital condyle, Basilar part.

Anatomy Physiology

[AnatomyPhysiology][recentbylabel2]

Featured

[Featured][recentbylabel2]
Notification
This is just an example, you can fill it later with your own note.
Done