Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve (L2, 3), Femoral nerve (L2, 3, 4), Obturator nerve, Iliacus muscle, Psoas major muscle, Articular branch, Sartorius muscle (cut and reflected), Pectineus muscle, Quadriceps femoris muscle, Rectus femoris muscle (cut and reflected),
Sunday, May 30, 2021
Wednesday, May 26, 2021
Posterior femoral cutaneous nerve (S1, 2, 3), Inferior cluneal nerves, Perineal branches, Tibial division of sciatic nerve (L4, 5, S1, 2, 3), Long head (cut) of biceps femoris muscle, Adductor magnus muscle (also supplied by obturator nerve), Semitendinosus muscle, Semimembranosus muscle, Tibial nerve, Articular branch, Plantaris muscle,
Tibial nerve (L4, 5, S1, 2, 3), Medial sural cutaneous nerve (cut), Articular branches, Plantaris muscle, Gastrocnemius muscle (cut), Nerve to popliteus muscle, Popliteus muscle, Crural interosseous nerve, Soleus muscle (cut and partly retracted), Flexor digitorum longus muscle, Tibialis posterior muscle, Flexor hallucis longus muscle, Sural nerve (cut), Lateral calcaneal branch, Medial calcaneal branch, Flexor retinaculum (cut), Lateral dorsal cutaneous nerve,
Arteries of Thigh and Knee Anatomy
Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Hip: Axial View Anatomy
Wednesday, May 12, 2021
Arteries of Knee and Foot Anatomy
Leg: Serial Cross Sections Anatomy
Osteology of Knee Anatomy
Anatomy of Foot: Nerves and Arteries Anatomy
Dorsal view, Medial dorsal cutaneous nerve, Supplies skin on medial sides and dorsal region of foot, and adjacent sides of 2nd and 3rd digits of foot, Anterior tibial artery, Posterior tibial artery, Posterior tibial artery, Anterior and posterior medial malleolar arteries, Anterior lateral malleolar arteries, Anterior tibial artery, Anterior and posterior medial malleolar arteries, Dorsalis pedis artery, Medial tarsal arteries, Arcuate artery, Dorsal metatarsal arteries,
Cross-Sectional Anatomy of Ankle and Foot Anatomy
Anterior tibial artery, Deep peroneal nerve, Fibula, Extensor digitorum longus muscle and tendon, Tibia, Peroneus longus tendon, Small saphenous vein, Sural nerve, Peroneus brevis muscle and tendon, Interosseous membrane, Tibialis posterior tendon, Tibialis anterior muscle and tendon, Extensor hallucis longus muscle and tendon, Flexor digitorum,
Saturday, May 8, 2021
The anterior compartment is the largest in the thigh, occupying the region between the inguinal ligament and the knee. Lateral and anteromedial intermuscular septa separate the contents from the posterior (hamstring) and medial (adductor) compartments, respectively (Fig. 6.2). The anterior compartment (Fig. 6.12) contains quadriceps femoris, sartorius and the tendon of iliopsoas, and is innervated by the femoral nerve. The femoral artery and vein, the principal vessels of the lower limb, traverse the compartment and leave via the opening in adductor magnus to gain the popliteal fossa.
The subcutaneous tissue contains the great (long) saphenous vein and its tributaries with their accompanying arteries, superficial inguinal lymph nodes and cutaneous nerves. The great saphenous vein ascends on the medial side of the thigh (Fig. 6.11) and passes through the saphenous opening in the fascia lata to empty into the femoral vein. The great saphenous vein drains the superficial tissues of the entire limb except the lateral side of the leg and foot. Near its termination, the vein receives tributaries, which drain the buttock, the perineum and the abdominal wall below the umbilicus. These tributaries are accompanied by corresponding branches of the femoral artery. The superficial inguinal lymph nodes, often palpable in the living, lie just distal and parallel to the inguinal ligament and adjacent to the termination of the great saphenous vein (Fig. 6.11). These nodes receive lymph from the same superficial tissues as those drained by the great saphenous vein and its tributaries. Efferent lymphatics from the superficial nodes pass through the fascia lata and drain into the deep inguinal nodes within the femoral triangle and femoral canal, where nodes are a focal point in lymphatic drainage of the lower limb (p. 257).
Medial Compartment of the Thigh Anatomy
The medial compartment of the thigh is wedgeshaped and lies between the anterior and posterior compartments. It contains pectineus, adductors longus, brevis and magnus, gracilis and obturator externus. The obturator nerve and vessels and the profunda femoris vessels, together with their perforating branches, supply the compartment.
The muscles are arranged in three layers. The anterior layer consists of pectineus, adductor longus and gracilis, from lateral to medial (Fig. 6.21). Deep to these, forming the intermediate layer, is adductor brevis (Figs 6.22 & 6.23). The posterior layer consists of obturator externus and adductor magnus (Figs 6.24 & 6.25). The proximal attachments of these muscles are to the outer surface of the bony pelvis between the superior pubic and ischial rami. In addition, obturator externus is attached to the obturator membrane.
Wednesday, May 5, 2021
Gluteal Compartment Anatomy
The gluteal region or buttock forms part of the root of the limb. It overlies the dorsum of the ilium, ischium and sacrum and is continuous proximally with the lower trunk and distally with the posterior compartment of the thigh. Three substantial muscles (gluteus maximus, medius and minimus), covered by deep fascia and a thick layer of subcutaneous fat, form the bulk of the buttock and account for its surface contour. The gluteal fold, a prominent surface feature, lies at the junction of the buttock and thigh.
This very large trapezoidal muscle is the most superficial in the buttock. Its fibres slope downwards and laterally (Fig. 6.28) and its lower edge passes obliquely across the gluteal fold. Some of the sensory nerves to the skin of the buttock penetrate the medial part of the muscle, while others emerge around its upper and lower borders. Proximally, the muscle has an extensive attachment: to the ilium behind the posterior gluteal line, to the lower part of the sacrum, to the coccyx, to the sacrotuberous ligament and to the thoracolumbar (lumbar) and gluteal fasciae. A synovial bursa is usually present where it crosses the ischial tuberosity. Distally, some of the deeper fibres are attached to the gluteal tuberosity of the femur (Fig. 6.29), but most of the muscle is attached through the iliotibial tract (Fig. 6.30) to the anterior surface of the lateral tibial condyle. The nerve supply is from the inferior gluteal nerve (L5, S1 & S2).
Tuesday, October 20, 2020
Coxal Bone Anatomy
Intermediate zone, Tuberculum, Outer lip, Ala of ilium (gluteal surface), Anterior superior iliac spine, Anterior inferior iliac spine, Lateral view, Medial view, Gluteal lines Anterior, Inferior, Posterior, Posterior superior iliac spine, Posterior inferior iliac spine, Greater sciatic notch, Body of ilium, Ischial spine, Lesser sciatic notch, Body of ischium, Ischial tuberosity, Ramus of ischium, Obturator foramen, Acetabulum, Lunate surface,
Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Lower Limb Anatomy
Great saphenous vein, Superficial lymph vessels, Great saphenous vein, Crural fascia, Fascia lata, Cribriform fascia within saphenous opening, Horizontal group: Superolateral nodes, Superomedial nodes, Vertical group: Inferior nodes,
Superficial Nerves and Veins of Lower Limb: Posterior View Anatomy
Medial cluneal nerves (from dorsal rami of S1, 2, 3), Perforating cutaneous nerve (from ventral rami of S2, 3), Branches of posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, Accessory saphenous vein, Cutaneous branches of obturator nerve, Great saphenous vein, Small saphenous vein, Branches of saphenous nerve, Medial calcaneal branches of tibial nerve,
Superficial Nerves and Veins of Lower Limb: Anterior View Anatomy
Lateral cutaneous branch of subcostal nerve, Inguinal ligament (Poupart’s), Superficial circumflex iliac vein, Femoral branches of genitofemoral nerve, Lateral femoral cutaneous nerve, Saphenous opening, Fascia lata, Anterior femoral cutaneous branches, Superficial epigastric vein, Ilioinguinal nerve (anterior scrotal branch) (usually passes through superficial inguinal ring), Genital branch of genitofemoral nerve,
Dermatomes of Lower Limb and Segmental Nerve Function Anatomy
Schematic demarcation of dermatomes (according to Keegan and Garrett) shown as distinct segments. There is considerable overlap between any two adjacent dermatomes.