pediagenosis: LowerLimb
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Showing posts with label LowerLimb. Show all posts
Showing posts with label LowerLimb. Show all posts

Thursday, April 30, 2020

Arches of the Foot Anatomy

Arches of the Foot Anatomy


Arches of the Foot Anatomy
The tarsal and metatarsal bones form two longitudinal arches, medial and lateral. The medial arch is higher, forming the instep of the foot, and consists of the calcaneus, talus, navicular, three cuneiforms, and medial three metatarsals (Figs 6.98, 6.99 & 6.100). The lateral arch comprises the calcaneus, cuboid and lateral two metatarsals (Fig. 6.98). Each arch has an anterior and a posterior pillar, which together transmit body weight to the ground. The posterior pillar of each arch is the same, namely the tubercles on the inferior surface of the calcaneus. However, the anterior pillars are separate, being formed by the heads of the appropriate metatarsals. The arches are important in relation to human bipedalism, as they enhance forward propulsion.
Ankle Joint Anatomy

Ankle Joint Anatomy


Ankle Joint Anatomy
The ankle joint is a synovial hinge joint between the lower ends of the tibia and fibula and the upper part of the talus (Fig. 6.84), and all the articular surfaces are
Tibiofibular Joints Anatomy

Tibiofibular Joints Anatomy


Tibiofibular Joints Anatomy
The tibia and fibula articulate at proximal and distal tibiofibular joints and are also connected by an interosseous membrane (Fig. 6.83), which unites the interosseous borders of the bones and separates the flexor and extensor compartments of the leg.
Knee Joint Anatomy

Knee Joint Anatomy


Knee Joint Anatomy
The knee joint is a synovial joint between the distal end of the femur, proximal end of the tibia and posterior aspect of the patella (Fig. 6.73). It is a hinge joint with a wide range of flexion and extension and limited lateral and medial rotation. The joint is relatively superficial anteriorly, medially and laterally where some of its bony features are palpable. Posteriorly, the joint is inaccessible, being deeply placed in the floor of the popliteal fossa (Fig. 6.74).
Hip Joint Anatomy

Hip Joint Anatomy


Hip Joint Anatomy
The hip joint is a synovial ball­and­socket joint between the head of the femur and the acetabulum of the hip bone (Fig. 6.66).
Anterior and Lateral Compartments of the Leg and Dorsum of the Foot Anatomy

Anterior and Lateral Compartments of the Leg and Dorsum of the Foot Anatomy

Anterior and Lateral Compartments of the Leg and Dorsum of the Foot Anatomy
Anterior compartment of leg and dorsum of foot
The anterior compartment of the leg contains muscles that extend the ankle joint and toes and evert and invert the foot. Its neurovascular bundle comprises the anterior tibial artery and its venae comitantes and the deep fibular nerve (Fig. 6.57). The cutaneous branches of the superficial fibular nerve are also present.
Sole of the Foot Anatomy

Sole of the Foot Anatomy


Sole of the Foot Anatomy
The sole of the foot contains the plantar aponeurosis, intrinsic muscles, tendons originating from muscles in the leg, and plantar vessels and nerves. The tendons, accompanied by the vessels and nerves, enter the sole deep to the flexor retinaculum (Fig. 6.48) in the tarsal tunnel, between the medial aspect of the calcaneus and the medial malleolus. The skin of the sole is thick and heavily keratinized and is firmly attached to the deep fascia by fibrous septa which traverse and loculate the subcutaneous fat. In the heel, it forms a weight bearing fat pad.
Posterior Compartment of the Leg Anatomy

Posterior Compartment of the Leg Anatomy


Posterior Compartment of the Leg Anatomy
The compartment extends from the popliteal fossa above to the ankle below. Gas­trocnemius and soleus account for its bulk (Fig. 6.41) and the characteristic contour of the calf. Their common tendon is conspicuous as it passes towards the ankle. Deeper are tibialis posterior and the two long flexors of the toes, flexor hallucis longus and flexor digitorum longus, whose tendons all pass distally into the foot. The posterior tibial artery and its venae comitantes and the tibial nerve pass distally between soleus and the long flexors to enter the foot, where they supply structures in the sole.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Posterior Compartment of the Thigh Anatomy

Posterior Compartment of the Thigh Anatomy


Posterior Compartment of the Thigh Anatomy
The posterior compartment is enclosed by the fascia lata (Fig. 6.34) and extends from the gluteal region above to the popliteal fossa below. It contains the poste­ rior cutaneous nerve of thigh, hamstring muscles, sciatic nerve and terminal branches of the profunda femoris artery.
Popliteal Fossa Anatomy

Popliteal Fossa Anatomy


Popliteal Fossa Anatomy
The popliteal fossa is a diamond­shaped space behind the knee joint. It contains the principal blood vessels and nerves passing between the thigh and the leg. It has a roof, four walls and a floor.

Saturday, November 16, 2019

Veins of Lower Limb Anatomy

Veins of Lower Limb Anatomy


Veins of Lower Limb Anatomy
External iliac vein, Inguinal ligament, Superficial circumflex iliac vein, Lateral circumflex femoral vein, Deep vein of thigh, Femoral vein, Adductor canal, Popliteal vein, Medial circumflex femoral vein, Great saphenous vein, Great saphenous vein, 
Common Fibular Nerve Anatomy

Common Fibular Nerve Anatomy


Common Fibular Nerve Anatomy
Common fibular nerve (phantom), Biceps femoris tendon, Common fibular nerve (L4, 5, S1, 2), Head of fibula, Fibularis longus muscle (cut), Superficial fibular nerve, Branches of lateral sural cutaneous nerve, Fibularis longus muscle, Fibularis brevis muscle, Medial dorsal cutaneous nerve, Intermediate dorsal cutaneous nerve, Inferior extensor retinaculum (partially cut), 

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Interosseous Muscles of Foot Anatomy

Interosseous Muscles of Foot Anatomy


Interosseous Muscles of Foot Anatomy
Plantar view, Distal phalanx of great toe, Proximal phalanx of great toe, Distal phalanx Sesamoid bones, Middle phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Plantar interossei muscles (unipennate), 5th metatarsal bone, Tuberosity of 5th metatarsal bone, Cuboid bone, 
Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries of Foot Anatomy

Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries of Foot Anatomy


Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries of Foot Anatomy
Dorsal view, Fibularis (peroneus) longus tendon (cut), Fibularis (peroneus) brevis tendon (cut), Cuboid bone, Lateral tarsal artery, Tuberosity of 5th metatarsal bone, Fibularis tertius tendon (cut), Posterior perforating branches (from plantar arterial arch), Dorsal metatarsal arteries, Extensor digitorum longus tendons (cut), Extensor expansions, Anterior perforating branches (from plantar metatarsal arteries), Dorsal digital arteries, Navicular bone, Medial tarsal artery, Lateral, Intermediate, Medial, Dorsal tarsometatarsal ligaments, 
Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot Third Layer Anatomy

Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot Third Layer Anatomy


Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Third Layer Anatomy
Proper plantar digital nerves, Plantar digital artery proper of superficial branch of medial plantar artery, Anterior perforating branches to dorsal metatarsal arteries, Tendons of lumbrical muscles (cut), Sesamoid bones, Transverse head and Oblique head of Adductor hallucis muscle, Medial head and, Lateral head of, Flexor hallucis brevis muscle, Superficial branches of medial plantar artery and nerve, Flexor hallucis longus tendon (cut), 
Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Second Layer Anatomy

Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Second Layer Anatomy


Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Second Layer Anatomy
Proper plantar digital nerves, Proper plantar digital nerves, Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle, Superficial branch and, Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve, Lateral plantar nerve and artery, Quadratus plantae muscle, Abductor digiti minimi muscle (cut), Nerve to abductor digiti minimi muscle (from lateral plantar nerve), 

Thursday, November 7, 2019

Dorsum of Foot: Deep Dissection Anatomy

Dorsum of Foot: Deep Dissection Anatomy


Dorsum of Foot: Deep Dissection Anatomy
Superficial fibular nerve (cut), Fibularis longus tendon, Fibularis brevis muscle and tendon, Extensor digitorum longus muscle and tendon, Fibula, Perforating branch of fibular artery, Anterior lateral malleolar artery, Lateral malleolus, Lateral branch of deep fibular nerve (to muscles of dorsal region of foot) and lateral tarsal artery, Fibularis longus tendon (cut), Extensor digitorum brevis and extensor hallucis brevis muscles (cut), Fibularis brevis tendon (cut), 

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