pediagenosis: Nervous
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Showing posts with label Nervous. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Nervous. Show all posts

Sunday, June 20, 2021

Opioid Use Disorders

Opioid Use Disorders

Opioid Use Disorders

Opioid Use Disorders


Opioid misuse, abuse, and dependence (opioid use disorders) refer to the pathologic self-administration of substances that activate central mu-opiate receptors, for the purpose of experiencing an altered mental state (euphoria or relaxation), or in the opioid-dependent individual for the purpose of avoiding opioid withdrawal. Naturally-occurring opiates (morphine, codeine) are found in Papaver somniferum poppy pods as a latex sap, opium; heroin is a semisynthetic opioid derived from opium. Prescription analgesics include semisynthetic (e.g., hydrocodone, oxycodone) and synthetic (e.g., methadone, fentanyl) opioids. Both heroin and opioid analgesics may be insufflated or injected to get “high”; other routes include smoking heroin and swallowing/chewing opioid analgesics. Routine toxicology detects only opiates (heroin metabolites), and special gas chromatograph/mass spectrometry (GC/ MS) detection is required for semisynthetic and synthetic opioid analgesics.

Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders

Treatment for Alcohol Use Disorders


In the United States, alcohol use disorders had 12-month prevalence rates of 4.65% alcohol abuse and 3.81% alcohol dependence from 2001 to 2002. Self-reported drinking (2010) among those age 12 years and older indicates that 23% binge drink (more than five drinks per drinking day), and nearly 7% are heavy drinkers (binge drink on five or more days per month); yet fewer than 2% of the population needing substance use treatment receives treatment.

Alcohol Withdrawal

Alcohol Withdrawal

Alcohol Withdrawal

Alcohol Withdrawal


An alcohol withdrawal syndrome (AWS) occurs when an individual who has alcohol dependence with physiologic dependence experiences a period of reduced dosage or abstinence from drinking. AWS is life-threatening as it poses a risk for seizures, hypertensive crisis, and autonomic instability (especially in patients with comorbid hypertension or diabetes) as well as delirium tremens, leading to death if not rapidly treated. AWS must be medically managed with close monitoring in either an outpatient or inpatient setting, depending on the patient risk profile.

Alcohol Use Disorders

Alcohol Use Disorders

Alcohol Use Disorders

Alcohol Use Disorders


Alcohol use is associated with 1.8 million deaths annually; global alcohol use is increasing. Yet many who drink alcohol do not experience negative health or social consequences, and some health-care studies suggest health benefits may be associated with alcohol consumption. How can we distinguish between risky drinking and safe drinking? The National Institute on Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism (NIAAA), dedicated to providing scientific leadership in the assessment of alcohol use and its health and social consequences, has established gender-specific guidelines based on current evidence for “low-risk” drinking. To normalize these guidelines, a “standard drink” is defined as an ethanol alcohol content of 14 grams (equivalent to 12 ounces of beer, 5 ounces of table wine, or 1.5 ounces of liquor). It is considered “low-risk” for healthy adult men under age 65 years to consume no more than 14 standard drinks per week, with up to 4 drinks per day, and for healthy adult nonpregnant women under age 65 years and healthy men and women age 65 years and older, no more than 7 standard drinks per week and up to 3 standard drinks per day.

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia

Schizophrenia


Schizophrenia is the prototype of a psychotic disorder, with the core symptoms of delusions and hallucinations as well as disorganized speech. Some patients also display prominent psychomotor disturbances, including catatonia. Together, these florid and often dramatic symptoms are referred to as positive symptoms and contrasted with negative and cognitive symptoms, the latter being responsible for much of the disability that characterizes schizophrenia. Negative symptoms are categorized into a reduced emotional expressivity cluster (restricted or flat affect) and an avolition/apathy/ anhedonia cluster. Many schizophrenia patients struggle with cognitive impairment in the realms of working memory, attention/vigilance, verbal learning and memory, visual learning and memory, reasoning and problem solving, speed of processing, and social cognition. Schizophrenic patients can often have prominent mood symptoms; these are not inconsistent with a diagnosis of schizophrenia. However, if mood symptoms dominate the overall course of a psychotic illness, a diagnosis of schizoaffective disorder can be given. Schizophrenia is a diagnosis of exclusion; various street drug usage, medications, and medical causes of psychosis must initially be excluded before diagnosis because these can mimic the core symptoms of schizophrenia.

Conversion Disorder

Conversion Disorder

Conversion Disorder

Conversion Disorder


Conversion disorder, previously referred to as hysteria, is defined by the DSM-IV-TR as a type of somatoform disorder with a loss or distortion of a neurologic function that is (1) not explained by an organic neurologic lesion or medical disease, (2) arising in relation to some psychologic stress or conflict, and (3) not consciously produced or intentionally feigned. Despite being thought of as a psychiatric disorder, neurologists predominantly manage and diagnose conversion disorder. Diagnosis requires appropriate neurologic assessment and testing that finds the physical symptoms to be incompatible with neurologic pathophysiology and/ or internally inconsistent to fulfill the first criteria. Criteria two and three are considered more difficult to demonstrate and will be de-emphasized in the diagnostic criteria for conversion disorder in the DSM-V.

Somatization

Somatization

Somatization

Somatization


Somatization is one of six major somatoform disorders identified by the American Psychiatric Association’s Diagnostic and Statistical Manual (DSM). Other somatoform disorders include undifferentiated somatoform disorder, conversion disorder, hypochondriasis, pain disorder associated with psychologic factors, pain disorder associated with both psychologic factors and a general medical condition. Fundamentally, somatization is a constellation of physical symptoms lacking medical explanation. The DSM-IV-TR designates eight symptom requirements for diagnosis, including four bodily pain symptoms, two gastrointestinal (GI) symptoms, one neurologic symptom, and one sexual symptom, resulting in impairment in function. However, these symptoms appear to exist along a spectrum, and the current diagnostic categorization may not accurately reflect the clinical presentation. Therefore the status and characterization of somatoform disorders are being reexamined for the soon-to-be-published DSM-V, to reclassify them under the general heading of bodily distress syndrome to encompass both psychiatric and nonpsychiatric functional disorders.

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder

Obsessive-Compulsive Disorder


Introduction. Obsessive-compulsive disorder (OCD) is diagnosed on the basis of recurrent and intrusive thoughts, referred to as obsessions, and/or compulsive behaviors or rituals. The obsessions or compulsions are recognized by the patient, at least at some point, as excessive and unreasonable, leading to marked distress or functional impairment; they may be extremely time- consuming. These symptoms are experienced as intrusive and inappropriate and are not simply excessive worries about real-world concerns.

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