pediagenosis: PelvisPerineum
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Showing posts with label PelvisPerineum. Show all posts
Showing posts with label PelvisPerineum. Show all posts

Sunday, May 30, 2021

Nerves of Perineum: Male Anatomy

Nerves of Perineum: Male Anatomy


Nerves of Perineum: Male Anatomy
Nerves of Perineum: Male Anatomy

Dorsal nerve of penis, Superficial perineal (Colles’) fascia (cut to open superficial perineal space), Superficial and deep branches of perineal nerve, Dorsal nerve of penis (passes superior to perineal membrane), Perineal nerve, Pudendal nerve, Pudendal canal (Alcock’s) (opened up), Obturator fascia (of obturator internus muscle), 
Nerves of Pelvic Viscera: Female Anatomy

Nerves of Pelvic Viscera: Female Anatomy


Nerves of Pelvic Viscera: Female Anatomy
Nerves of Pelvic Viscera: Female Anatomy

Sympathetic trunk and L2 ganglion, White and gray rami communicantes, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, Gray rami communicantes L5 spinal nerve, Right hypogastric nerve (cut), Right and left sacral sympathetic trunks and ganglia, Piriformis muscle, Sacral splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), Pudendal nerve, Pelvic splanchnic nerves (parasympathetic), 
Nerves of Perineum and External Genitalia: Female Anatomy

Nerves of Perineum and External Genitalia: Female Anatomy


Nerves of Perineum and External Genitalia: Female Anatomy
Nerves of Perineum and External Genitalia: Female Anatomy

Anterior labial branch (from ilioinguinal nerve), Dorsal nerve of clitoris, Posterior labial nerves, Superficial, Deep, Branches of perineal nerve, Perineal branch of posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, Dorsal nerve of clitoris passing superior to perineal membrane, Inferior clunial nerves, Gluteus maximus muscle (cut away), Pudendal nerve in pudendal canal (Alcock’s) (dissected), Perineal nerve, Sacrotuberous ligament, Anococcygeal nerves, Inferior anal (rectal) nerves, 
Neuropathways in Parturition Anatomy

Neuropathways in Parturition Anatomy


Neuropathways in Parturition Anatomy
Neuropathways in Parturition Anatomy

Splanchnic nerves, Greater, Lesser, Least, Celiac ganglion, Aorticorenal ganglion, Superior mesenteric ganglion, Intermesenteric (abdominal aortic) plexus, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, Sympathetic trunk and ganglia T11 spinal nerve (anterior ramus), Rami communicantes, Subcostal nerve (T12), Inferior mesenteric ganglion, T7 spinal nerve (anterior ramus), Intermesenteric (abdominal aortic) plexus, Superior hypogastric plexus, S1 spinal nerve (anterior ramus),
Innervation of Female Reproductive Organs: Schema Anatomy

Innervation of Female Reproductive Organs: Schema Anatomy


Innervation of Female Reproductive Organs: Schema Anatomy
Innervation of Female Reproductive Organs: Schema Anatomy
Sympathetic trunk and ganglion, Gray ramus communicans, White ramus communicans, Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve, Lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve, Least thoracic splanchnic nerve, Sympathetic trunk, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, L3 spinal nerve (anterior ramus), Ovarian artery and plexus, Uterine (fallopian) tube, Celiac ganglia and plexus, Aorticorenal ganglia, 

Saturday, May 29, 2021

Innervation of Male Reproductive Organs Schema Anatomy

Innervation of Male Reproductive Organs Schema Anatomy


Innervation of Male Reproductive Organs: Schema Anatomy
Innervation of Male Reproductive Organs: Schema Anatomy
Sympathetic trunk and ganglion, Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve (T5–9), Gray ramus communicans, White ramus communicans, Lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve, Least thoracic splanchnic nerve, Upper lumbar splanchnic nerves, Gray ramus communicans, Testicular artery and plexus, Ductus (vas) deferens and plexus, Pelvic splanchnic nerves, 

Wednesday, May 26, 2021

Innervation of Urinary Bladder and Lower Ureter: Schema Anatomy

Innervation of Urinary Bladder and Lower Ureter: Schema Anatomy


Innervation of Urinary Bladder and Lower Ureter: Schema Anatomy

Innervation of Urinary Bladder and Lower Ureter: Schema Anatomy
Spinal (posterior root) ganglion, Posterior root, Anterior root, White, Gray Rami communicantes, Renal ganglion Celiac ganglia, Superior mesenteric ganglion, Aorticorenal ganglion, Renal artery and plexus, Intermesenteric (abdominal aortic) plexus, Inferior mesenteric ganglion, Superior hypogastric plexus, 

Tuesday, May 18, 2021

Genetics of Reproduction Anatomy

Genetics of Reproduction Anatomy


Genetics of Reproduction Anatomy
Genetics of Reproduction Anatomy


Spermatogenesis, Crossing over Mendelian inheritance, Pair of homologous chromosomes (tetrad), Recombinant chromatids, Parental generation F1 generation, F2 generation 3:1 red to white, Chiasma, Spermatogonium (2n) Oogonium (2n) Puberty, Fertilization
Female Urethra Anatomy

Female Urethra Anatomy


Female Urethra Anatomy
Female Urethra Anatomy


Ureteric orifice, Trigone of urinary bladder, Neck of urinary bladder, Detrusor muscle of bladder wall, Cavernous venous plexus of urethra, Levator ani muscle and Fibromuscular extension, Urethra, Sphincter urethrae muscle, Perineal membrane, Bulb of vestibule, 
Fasciae of Male and Female Pelvis and Perineum Anatomy

Fasciae of Male and Female Pelvis and Perineum Anatomy


Fasciae of Male and Female Pelvis and Perineum Anatomy
Fasciae of Male and Female Pelvis and Perineum Anatomy


Superficial fascia: Superficial fascia: Uterovaginal fascia (purple), Vesical fascia (purple), Fatty (Camper's) fascia, Membranous (Scarpa's) fascia, Fatty (Camper's) fascia, Membranous (Scarpa's) fascia, Deep perineal pouch with endopelvic fascia, External urethral sphincter muscle,
Male Pelvis Cross Section of Bladder Prostate Gland Junction Anatomy

Male Pelvis Cross Section of Bladder Prostate Gland Junction Anatomy


Male Pelvis: Cross Section of Bladder Prostate Gland Junction Anatomy


Male Pelvis: Cross Section of Bladder Prostate Gland Junction Anatomy
Spermatic cord, Beginning of urethra, Prostate gland, Psoas muscle and tendon, Iliacus muscle, Head of femur, Neck of femur, Gluteus medius muscle, Gluteus minimus tendon, Greater trochanter, Inferior gemellus muscle, Right sciatic nerve, Gluteus maximus muscle, Obturator internus muscle, Sacrotuberous ligament, Openings of ejaculatory ducts (in prostatic urethra), 

Monday, May 10, 2021

Menstrual Cycle

Menstrual Cycle


Menstrual Cycle
Menstrual Cycle

Ovarian cycle, Menstruation Proliferative Secretory, Uterine cycle, Luteinizing hormone, Folliclestimulating hormone, Progesterone, Estrogen, Inhibin, 
Testes Anatomy

Testes Anatomy


Testes Anatomy
Testes Anatomy


Spermatogonium, Primary spermatocytes, Sertoli cell, Basement membrane, Spermatogonium in mitosis, Epididymis, Ductuli efferentes testis, Rete testis, Convoluted seminiferous tubules, Testis, Ductus deferens, Seminal vesicle, Prostatic lobules, 
Ovary Ova and Follicles Anatomy

Ovary Ova and Follicles Anatomy


Ovary, Ova, and Follicles Anatomy
Ovary, Ova, and Follicles Anatomy

Superficial (germinal) epithelium (cuboidal cells), Ovum, Zona pellucida, Corona radiata, Cumulus oƶphorus, Fluid-filled follicular cavity, Granulosa, Theca interna, Theca externa, Infant ovary Ripening follicle, Epithelial cord growing in, Primary ova, 

Sunday, May 9, 2021

Arteries and Veins of Pelvis Male Anatomy

Arteries and Veins of Pelvis Male Anatomy


Arteries and Veins of Pelvis Male Anatomy
Arteries and Veins of Pelvis: Male Anatomy
Left paramedian section: lateral view, Inferior vena cava, Right obturator vessels, Right umbilical artery (patent part), Superior vesical artery, Umbilical artery (fibrous part), Deep circumflex iliac vessels, Inferior epigastric vessels, Ductus deferens, Medial umbilical ligament, Median umbilical ligament (urachus), Superior vesical artery, Superficial dorsal vein of penis, Deep dorsal vein and dorsal artery of penis, Deep (Buck’s) fascia of penis, 
Testicular artery, Pampiniform (venous) plexus, Artery to ductus deferens, Vesical (retropubic) venous plexus, Abdominal aorta, Common iliac vessels, Median sacral vessels, External iliac vessels (cut), Internal iliac vessels, Iliolumbar artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery, Obturator artery, Umbilical artery, Ureter (cut), Inferior gluteal artery, Inferior vesical artery, Middle rectal artery, Internal pudendal artery, Ductus deferens and its artery, Prostatic branches of inferior vesical artery, Inferior rectal artery, Prostatic venous plexus, External urethral sphincter muscle, Perineal artery, Internal pudendal artery, Posterior on superior aspect of perineal membrane scrotal arteries, Branch to prostate gland, Inferior vesical artery, Urethral branches, Capsular branches, Hyperplastic middle lobe, Hyperplastic lateral lobe, External urethral sphincter muscle, Arterial supply of prostate gland (frontal section, anterior view of specimen with benign hyperplasia)


Saturday, May 8, 2021

Pelvic Cavity Anatomy

Pelvic Cavity Anatomy


Pelvic Cavity Anatomy
Although the pelvic cavity is in direct continuity with the abdominal cavity, the two regions are delineated by the pelvic inlet (pelvic brim). This lies at approximately 45° to the horizontal and comprises the sacral promontory posteriorly, the arcuate and pectineal lines laterally and the pubic crests and upper border of pubic symphysis anteriorly (Figs 5.1 & 5.26).
The bony walls of the pelvis give attachment to two pairs of muscles. The obturator internus and piriformis muscles arise within the pelvis but their tendons pass out into the gluteal region to reach the femur. The fascia covering the medial surface of obturator internus is dense and provides attachment for the pelvic floor. The piriformis muscles spring from the anterior surface of the sacrum and are partially covered by the large nerves comprising the sacral plexuses (Fig. 5.4).
In both sexes, the pelvic cavity contains the rectum and bladder along with the lower parts of the ureters and loops of small or large intestine. The remaining organs differ between the sexes. The male reproductive organs found within the pelvis (Fig. 5.5) are the prostate, seminal vesicles and ductus deferentes. Those of the female (Fig. 5.6) are the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus and upper part of vagina.
Pelvis and lower abdomen after removal of all the organs and most of the vessels to demonstrate the pelvic inlet (pink line) and cavity.

Fig. 5.4 Pelvis and lower abdomen after removal of all the organs and most of the vessels to demonstrate the pelvic inlet (pink line) and cavity.

Peritoneum
Peritoneum lines the lateral and posterior pelvic walls and covers most of the pelvic organs (Figs 5.5 & 5.6). In both sexes peritoneum passes from the anterior abdominal wall onto the upper surface of the bladder. In the male, it descends on the posterior surface of the bladder and then passes onto the rectum, forming a recess, the rectovesical pouch (Fig. 5.14). In the female, peritoneum is reflected from the bladder onto the anterior surface of the body of the uterus, forming the vesicouterine pouch (Fig. 5.6). It covers the fundus of the uterus and on each side passes over the uterine tube, forming the broad ligament. From the posterior surface of the uterus, peritoneum passes over the vault of the vagina onto the anterior wall of the rectum, forming the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas). Fluid may collect in the rectovesical pouch of the male or the rectouterine pouch of the female and, if infected, may form a pelvic abscess.

Monday, October 19, 2020

Rectum Anatomy and Physiology

Rectum Anatomy and Physiology

Rectum Anatomy and Physiology
The rectum is the distal portion of the large intestine and lies in the posterior part of the pelvic cavity. It is continuous with the sigmoid colon at the rectosigmoid junction in front of the third piece of the sacrum (Fig. 5.7), where there is often an acute angulation. The rectum curves downwards and forwards, lying first on the anterior surface of the sacrum and then on the upper surface of the pelvic floor. It deviates to either side of the midline and these lateral flexures become pronounced when the organ is distended. The lowest part of the rectum, the ampulla, is its most dilatable portion. Turning abruptly downwards and backwards, the rectum pierces the pelvic floor and terminates at the anorectal junction, where it is continuous with the anal canal (Fig. 5.5). The sharp angulations at the anorectal and rectosigmoid junctions must be navigated with care during endoscopy.

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