Dorsal nerve of penis, Superficial perineal (Colles’) fascia (cut to open superficial perineal space), Superficial and deep branches of perineal nerve, Dorsal nerve of penis (passes superior to perineal membrane), Perineal nerve, Pudendal nerve, Pudendal canal (Alcock’s) (opened up), Obturator fascia (of obturator internus muscle),
Sunday, May 30, 2021
Sympathetic trunk and L2 ganglion, White and gray rami communicantes, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, Gray rami communicantes L5 spinal nerve, Right hypogastric nerve (cut), Right and left sacral sympathetic trunks and ganglia, Piriformis muscle, Sacral splanchnic nerves (sympathetic), Pudendal nerve, Pelvic splanchnic nerves (parasympathetic),
Nerves of Perineum and External Genitalia: Female Anatomy
Anterior labial branch (from ilioinguinal nerve), Dorsal nerve of clitoris, Posterior labial nerves, Superficial, Deep, Branches of perineal nerve, Perineal branch of posterior femoral cutaneous nerve, Dorsal nerve of clitoris passing superior to perineal membrane, Inferior clunial nerves, Gluteus maximus muscle (cut away), Pudendal nerve in pudendal canal (Alcock’s) (dissected), Perineal nerve, Sacrotuberous ligament, Anococcygeal nerves, Inferior anal (rectal) nerves,
Neuropathways in Parturition Anatomy
Splanchnic nerves, Greater, Lesser, Least, Celiac ganglion, Aorticorenal ganglion, Superior mesenteric ganglion, Intermesenteric (abdominal aortic) plexus, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, Sympathetic trunk and ganglia T11 spinal nerve (anterior ramus), Rami communicantes, Subcostal nerve (T12), Inferior mesenteric ganglion, T7 spinal nerve (anterior ramus), Intermesenteric (abdominal aortic) plexus, Superior hypogastric plexus, S1 spinal nerve (anterior ramus),
Sympathetic trunk and ganglion, Gray ramus communicans, White ramus communicans, Greater thoracic splanchnic nerve, Lesser thoracic splanchnic nerve, Least thoracic splanchnic nerve, Sympathetic trunk, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, L3 spinal nerve (anterior ramus), Ovarian artery and plexus, Uterine (fallopian) tube, Celiac ganglia and plexus, Aorticorenal ganglia,
Saturday, May 29, 2021
Innervation of Male Reproductive Organs: Schema Anatomy
Wednesday, May 26, 2021
Innervation of Urinary Bladder and Lower Ureter: Schema Anatomy
Tuesday, May 18, 2021
Superficial fascia: Superficial fascia: Uterovaginal fascia (purple), Vesical fascia (purple), Fatty (Camper's) fascia, Membranous (Scarpa's) fascia, Fatty (Camper's) fascia, Membranous (Scarpa's) fascia, Deep perineal pouch with endopelvic fascia, External urethral sphincter muscle,
Male Pelvis: Cross Section of Bladder Prostate Gland Junction Anatomy
Monday, May 10, 2021
Sunday, May 9, 2021
Arteries and Veins of Pelvis Male Anatomy
Testicular artery, Pampiniform (venous) plexus, Artery to ductus deferens, Vesical (retropubic) venous plexus, Abdominal aorta, Common iliac vessels, Median sacral vessels, External iliac vessels (cut), Internal iliac vessels, Iliolumbar artery, Lateral sacral artery, Superior gluteal artery, Obturator artery, Umbilical artery, Ureter (cut), Inferior gluteal artery, Inferior vesical artery, Middle rectal artery, Internal pudendal artery, Ductus deferens and its artery, Prostatic branches of inferior vesical artery, Inferior rectal artery, Prostatic venous plexus, External urethral sphincter muscle, Perineal artery, Internal pudendal artery, Posterior on superior aspect of perineal membrane scrotal arteries, Branch to prostate gland, Inferior vesical artery, Urethral branches, Capsular branches, Hyperplastic middle lobe, Hyperplastic lateral lobe, External urethral sphincter muscle, Arterial supply of prostate gland (frontal section, anterior view of specimen with benign hyperplasia)
Saturday, May 8, 2021
Pelvic Cavity Anatomy
Although the pelvic cavity is in direct continuity with the abdominal cavity, the two regions are delineated by the pelvic inlet (pelvic brim). This lies at approximately 45° to the horizontal and comprises the sacral promontory posteriorly, the arcuate and pectineal lines laterally and the pubic crests and upper border of pubic symphysis anteriorly (Figs 5.1 & 5.26).
The bony walls of the pelvis give attachment to two pairs of muscles. The obturator internus and piriformis muscles arise within the pelvis but their tendons pass out into the gluteal region to reach the femur. The fascia covering the medial surface of obturator internus is dense and provides attachment for the pelvic floor. The piriformis muscles spring from the anterior surface of the sacrum and are partially covered by the large nerves comprising the sacral plexuses (Fig. 5.4).
In both sexes, the pelvic cavity contains the rectum and bladder along with the lower parts of the ureters and loops of small or large intestine. The remaining organs differ between the sexes. The male reproductive organs found within the pelvis (Fig. 5.5) are the prostate, seminal vesicles and ductus deferentes. Those of the female (Fig. 5.6) are the ovaries, uterine tubes, uterus and upper part of vagina.
Fig. 5.4 Pelvis and lower abdomen after removal of all the organs and most of the vessels to demonstrate the pelvic inlet (pink line) and cavity.
Peritoneum lines the lateral and posterior pelvic walls and covers most of the pelvic organs (Figs 5.5 & 5.6). In both sexes peritoneum passes from the anterior abdominal wall onto the upper surface of the bladder. In the male, it descends on the posterior surface of the bladder and then passes onto the rectum, forming a recess, the rectovesical pouch (Fig. 5.14). In the female, peritoneum is reflected from the bladder onto the anterior surface of the body of the uterus, forming the vesicouterine pouch (Fig. 5.6). It covers the fundus of the uterus and on each side passes over the uterine tube, forming the broad ligament. From the posterior surface of the uterus, peritoneum passes over the vault of the vagina onto the anterior wall of the rectum, forming the rectouterine pouch (of Douglas). Fluid may collect in the rectovesical pouch of the male or the rectouterine pouch of the female and, if infected, may form a pelvic abscess.
Monday, October 19, 2020
Rectum Anatomy and Physiology
The rectum is the distal portion of the large intestine and lies in the posterior part of the pelvic cavity. It is continuous with the sigmoid colon at the rectosigmoid junction in front of the third piece of the sacrum (Fig. 5.7), where there is often an acute angulation. The rectum curves downwards and forwards, lying first on the anterior surface of the sacrum and then on the upper surface of the pelvic floor. It deviates to either side of the midline and these lateral flexures become pronounced when the organ is distended. The lowest part of the rectum, the ampulla, is its most dilatable portion. Turning abruptly downwards and backwards, the rectum pierces the pelvic floor and terminates at the anorectal junction, where it is continuous with the anal canal (Fig. 5.5). The sharp angulations at the anorectal and rectosigmoid junctions must be navigated with care during endoscopy.