pediagenosis: Pharmacology
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Showing posts with label Pharmacology. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Pharmacology. Show all posts

Thursday, June 10, 2021

Clinical Depression

Clinical Depression

Clinical Depression

Clinical Depression


Clinical (endogenous) depression, a heterogeneous biopsychologic disorder with genetic predisposition, can occur at any time in life, unrelated to obvious stressors. Treatment is required: approximately 15% of these patients commit suicide. Severe (major depression) and mild (dysthymic disorder) forms exist.

Wednesday, June 9, 2021

Anxiolytic Agents

Anxiolytic Agents

Anxiolytic Agents

Anxiolytic Agents


Two main categories of anxiolytics are benzodiazepines and mis­cellaneous (eg, buspirone, zolpidem, zaleplon). Subclassification of benzodiazepines is based on speed of onset or duration of action, metabolism, and adverse effects. Benzodiazepines cross the blood­brain barrier and bind to specific receptors on the GABAA complex; these receptors occur in many brain regions. The drugs do not bind to the same sites as does GABA but potentiate GABA action. Benzodiazepines are safer than barbitu­rates (largely obsolete); adverse effects include dependence, ataxia, and drowsiness. Diazepam, chlordiazepoxide, prazepam, and the prodrug clorazepate undergo hepatic metabolism to the intermediate oxazepam. Alprazolam, flurazepam, lorazepam, and triazolam directly undergo conjugation before excretion.

Clinical Anxiety

Clinical Anxiety

Clinical Anxiety

Clinical Anxiety


To experience anxiety is normal. However, clinical anxiety is tension or apprehension that is grossly disproportionate to an actual or perceived stimulus. The source of anxiety may not be apparent and indeed may not be external; an underlying biochemical defect and genetic predisposition are hypothesized. 

Resting Membrane and Action Potentials

Resting Membrane and Action Potentials

Resting Membrane and Action Potentials

Resting Membrane and Action Potentials


The CNS comprises many types of neurons. In general, myelinated neurons conduct impulses more rapidly than do nonmyelinated neurons. The magnitude of the electrical potential difference across the neuronal membrane in the resting state, termed the resting membrane potential, depends on the relative intracellular and extracellular concentrations of Na+ and Cl (higher on the outside) and K+ (higher on the inside). The cytoplasmic electrical potential is more negative than the extracellular fluid by approximately −70 mV. The potential difference is partly maintained by an Na+/K+ active transport exchange mechanism (ion pump).

Tuesday, June 8, 2021

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures


Although many, if not most, brain functions involve coordinated interaction among multiple brain structures and each portion of the brain is connected to almost every other portion, some functions are loosely associated with certain regions. For example, the somatosensory (motor­sensory and sensorimotor) regions of the frontal and parietal lobes and the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe are involved with initiation, activation, and performance of motor activity and reception of primary sensations.

Adrenergic Drugs

Adrenergic Drugs




Adrenergic Drugs
Adrenergic Drugs

Adrenoceptor agonists (eg, phenylephrine) elicit vasoconstriction and mydriasis and are used as nasal decongestants and in eye examinations. α2-Adrenoceptor agonists (eg, clonidine) bind to presynaptic receptors and activate a negative feedback loop that inhibits further release of norepinephrine; they serve as anti-hypertensive agents.

Anatomy Physiology

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