pediagenosis: Thorax
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Showing posts with label Thorax. Show all posts
Showing posts with label Thorax. Show all posts

Sunday, May 9, 2021

Pericardium Anatomy

Pericardium Anatomy


Pericardium Anatomy
Fibrous pericardium
The fibrous pericardium is a sac of dense connective tissue surrounding the heart. In addition to the heart, it encloses the roots of the great arteries and veins and is covered on its inner surface by serous pericardium (see below). The broad base of the fibrous pericardium is attached to the central tendon of the diaphragm (Fig. 2.29) and is pierced by the inferior vena cava.
The fibrous pericardium and phrenic nerves revealed after removal of the lungs.

Fig. 2.29 The fibrous pericardium and phrenic nerves revealed after removal of the lungs.


Superiorly, the sac fuses with the adventitial layers of the aorta, pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava. On each side, the posterior part of the sac blends with the walls of the pulmonary veins.
Heart Anatomy

Heart Anatomy


Heart Anatomy
External features
The heart, enclosed in pericardium, occupies the middle mediastinum. It is roughly cone-shaped and lies behind the sternum with its base facing posteriorly and its apex projecting inferiorly, anteriorly and to the left, producing the cardiac impression in the left lung.
Transverse CT image at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra.
Fig. 2.31 Transverse CT image at the level of the eighth thoracic vertebra.

The heart consists of four chambers, namely the right and left atria and the right and left ventricles (
Fig. 2.31). A fat-filled groove, the coronary or atrioventricular sulcus, separates the surfaces of the atria from the ventricles and carries the right and left coronary arteries and the coronary sinus. The right atrium receives the superior and inferior venae cavae and the coronary sinus. The right and left pulmonary veins drain into the left atrium. The right ventricle is continuous with the pulmonary trunk while the left ventricle opens into the ascending aorta.

Sunday, October 18, 2020

Thorax Surface Anatomy

Thorax Surface Anatomy


Thorax: Surface Anatomy
Sternocleidomastoid muscle, Jugular notch, Deltoid muscle, Body of sternum, Nipple, Cephalic vein, External abdominal oblique muscle, Rectus abdominis muscle,
Mammary Gland Anatomy

Mammary Gland Anatomy


Mammary Gland Anatomy
Anterolateral dissection, Pectoralis major muscle (deep to pectoral fascia), External abdominal oblique muscle, Pectoral fasciae, Intercostal muscles, Serratus anterior muscle, Clavicle, Subclavius muscle 2nd rib, Pectoralis major muscle, Intercostal vessels and nerve, Lung 6th rib.
Arteries of Mammary Gland Anatomy

Arteries of Mammary Gland Anatomy

Arteries of Mammary Gland Anatomy
Subclavian artery, Internal thoracic artery and its perforating branches, Medial mammary branches, Axillary artery, Brachial plexus, Brachial artery, Lateral thoracic artery and, Lateral mammary branches, Lateral mammary branches of lateral cutaneous branches of posterior intercostal arteries, Axillary tail (of Spence), Long thoracic nerve.
Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Mammary Gland Anatomy

Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Mammary Gland Anatomy


Lymph Vessels and Nodes of Mammary Gland Anatomy
Parasternal nodes, Apical axillary, Interpectoral (Rotter’s) nodes (subclavian) nodes, Central axillary nodes, Lateral axillary (humeral) nodes, Posterior axillary (subscapular) nodes, Anterior axillary (pectoral) nodes, Pathway to anterior mediastinal nodes.

Tuesday, October 13, 2020

Mediastinal Structures Anatomy

Mediastinal Structures Anatomy


Mediastinal Structures Anatomy
Brachiocephalic veins
On each side, the brachiocephalic vein is formed in the root of the neck by the union of the internal jugular and subclavian veins. At its origin, the vein lies behind the sternoclavicular joint and in front of the first part of the subclavian artery.

Monday, June 3, 2019

Mediastinum Anatomy

Mediastinum Anatomy


Mediastinum Anatomy
The central part of the thorax between the two pleural cavities contains a group of structures collectively termed the mediastinum. These include the heart and great vessels, the trachea and the oesophagus. The mediastinum extends from the superior thoracic aperture above to the diaphragm below and from the sternum in front to the thoracic vertebral bodies behind (Fig. 2.28). By convention, the mediastinum is divided into superior and inferior parts by an imaginary horizontal plane passing through the manubriosternal joint and the lower part of the fourth thoracic vertebra. The superior mediastinum lies between this plane and the superior thoracic aperture and contains the superior vena cava and its tributaries, the arch of the aorta and its branches and the trachea. Also passing through this region are the oesophagus, the thoracic duct and the right and left vagus and phrenic nerves.
Lungs Anatomy

Lungs Anatomy


Lungs Anatomy
The two lungs lie in the thoracic cavity and are separated by the structures in the mediastinum (Fig. 2.19). Although the lungs of infants are pink, those of older individuals may have a mottled appearance due to deposits of inhaled carbon. Living lungs are elastic, enabling their volumes to change during ventilation, in contrast to embalmed lungs, which are rigid and often bear the imprints of adjacent structures. Each lung is covered in visceral pleura and is cone-shaped, with the base or diaphragmatic surface directed downwards and the apex upwards. The costal surface is smoothly convex, while the mediastinal surface is irregular and bears the hilum of the organ. Fissures are usually present, and divide each lung into lobes (usually three lobes on the right and two on the left). Most of the lung consists of the peripheral part of the respiratory tract and the associated pulmonary vascular system. Having entered the lung, the bronchi and pulmonary vessels subdivide extensively (Fig. 2.26).
Pleura Anatomy

Pleura Anatomy


Pleura Anatomy
The thoracic cavity lies within the walls of the thorax and is separated from the abdominal cavity by the diaphragm. The cavity contains the right and left lungs, each surrounded by a serous membrane called the pleura. Between the lungs is a central partition, the mediastinum, which includes the heart and great vessels, the trachea and the oesophagus. Superiorly, numerous mediastinal structures enter or leave the root of the neck through the superior thoracic aperture (p. 322). Inferiorly, important structures including the aorta, inferior vena cava and oesophagus pass between the mediastinum and the abdomen through openings in the diaphragm (p. 203).
Thoracic Wall Anatomy

Thoracic Wall Anatomy


Thoracic Wall Anatomy
Skin
The skin covering the thorax receives its nerve supply from lower cervical and upper thoracic spinal nerves. Above the level of the manubriosternal joint, C4 gives cutaneous innervation, while tho- racic nerves T2–T11 provide the dermatomes for the remainder of the thoracic wall. The first thoracic nerve does not contribute to the cutaneous nerve supply of the thorax but innervates some of the skin of the upper limb (Figs 1.35 & 3.6).
Skeleton of the Thorax Anatomy

Skeleton of the Thorax Anatomy


Skeleton of the Thorax Anatomy
The skeleton of the thorax consists of 12 thoracic vertebrae, the 12 pairs of ribs and their costal cartilages, and the sternum (Fig. 2.5). Structures in continuity between the root of the neck and the upper part of the thoracic cavity pass through the superior thoracic aperture (thoracic inlet), which is bounded by the first thoracic vertebral body, the first pair of ribs and costal cartilages and the upper border of the sternum. The inferior thoracic aperture (thoracic outlet), through which structures pass between the thoracic and abdominal cavities, is formed by the twelfth thoracic vertebral body, the twelfth and eleventh ribs and the costal margin (the fused costal cartilages of the seventh to the tenth ribs inclusive).

Sunday, March 17, 2019

Thorax: Coronal CTs

Thorax: Coronal CTs


Thorax: Coronal CTs
Trachea, Azygos vein, Right brachiocephalic vein, Ascending aorta, Contrast from superior vena cava entering right atrium, Right ventricle, Portal vein, Tracheal bifurcation (carina), Right upper lobe bronchus, Right main bronchus, Bronchus intermedius, Right pulmonary artery, Right pulmonary vein, Liver, Adrenal gland, Clavicle
Thorax: Coronal Section (Midaxillary Line, Tracheal Bifurcation, Left Atrium) Anatomy

Thorax: Coronal Section (Midaxillary Line, Tracheal Bifurcation, Left Atrium) Anatomy


Thorax: Coronal Section (Midaxillary Line, Tracheal Bifurcation, Left Atrium) Anatomy
Arch of azygos vein, Trapezius muscle, Supraspinatus muscle, Subscapularis muscle, Oblique fissure of right lung, Middle lobe of right lung, Right pulmonary artery, Right intermediate bronchus, Horizontal fissure of right lung, Left atrium, Coronary sinus, Respiratory diaphragm, Esophagus, Costodiaphragmatic recess, Liver, Thoracic duct, Esophagus, Left vertebral artery
Intrinsic Nerves and Variations in Nerves of Esophagus Anatomy

Intrinsic Nerves and Variations in Nerves of Esophagus Anatomy


Intrinsic Nerves and Variations in Nerves of Esophagus Anatomy
Single anterior trunk dividing just above respiratory diaphragm, Multiple anterior trunks, Multiple posterior trunks, Low emergence of single trunk, High emergence of single trunk, Longitudinal muscle, Intermuscular connective and elastic tissue, Auerbach’s plexus (myenteric), Submucosa, Meissner’s plexus (submucosal), Circular muscle, Intrinsic nerve supply (schematic).

Intrinsic Nerves and Variations in Nerves of Esophagus Anatomy




Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins: Variations Anatomy

Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins: Variations Anatomy


Coronary Arteries and Cardiac Veins: Variations Anatomy
Anterior interventricular (left anterior descending) branch of left coronary artery is very short. Apical part of anterior (sternocostal) surface is supplied by branches from inferior interventricular (posterior descending) branch of right coronary artery curving around apex.

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