The fibrous pericardium is a sac of dense connective tissue surrounding the heart. In addition to the heart, it encloses the roots of the great arteries and veins and is covered on its inner surface by serous pericardium (see below). The broad base of the fibrous pericardium is attached to the central tendon of the diaphragm (Fig. 2.29) and is pierced by the inferior vena cava.
Fig. 2.29 The fibrous pericardium and phrenic nerves revealed after removal of the lungs.
Superiorly, the sac fuses with the adventitial layers of the aorta, pulmonary trunk and superior vena cava. On each side, the posterior part of the sac blends with the walls of the pulmonary veins.