pediagenosis: science
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Showing posts with label science. Show all posts
Showing posts with label science. Show all posts

Thursday, November 14, 2019

Interosseous Muscles of Foot Anatomy

Interosseous Muscles of Foot Anatomy


Interosseous Muscles of Foot Anatomy
Plantar view, Distal phalanx of great toe, Proximal phalanx of great toe, Distal phalanx Sesamoid bones, Middle phalanx, Proximal phalanx, Plantar interossei muscles (unipennate), 5th metatarsal bone, Tuberosity of 5th metatarsal bone, Cuboid bone, 
Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries of Foot Anatomy

Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries of Foot Anatomy


Interosseous Muscles and Deep Arteries of Foot Anatomy
Dorsal view, Fibularis (peroneus) longus tendon (cut), Fibularis (peroneus) brevis tendon (cut), Cuboid bone, Lateral tarsal artery, Tuberosity of 5th metatarsal bone, Fibularis tertius tendon (cut), Posterior perforating branches (from plantar arterial arch), Dorsal metatarsal arteries, Extensor digitorum longus tendons (cut), Extensor expansions, Anterior perforating branches (from plantar metatarsal arteries), Dorsal digital arteries, Navicular bone, Medial tarsal artery, Lateral, Intermediate, Medial, Dorsal tarsometatarsal ligaments, 
Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot Third Layer Anatomy

Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot Third Layer Anatomy


Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Third Layer Anatomy
Proper plantar digital nerves, Plantar digital artery proper of superficial branch of medial plantar artery, Anterior perforating branches to dorsal metatarsal arteries, Tendons of lumbrical muscles (cut), Sesamoid bones, Transverse head and Oblique head of Adductor hallucis muscle, Medial head and, Lateral head of, Flexor hallucis brevis muscle, Superficial branches of medial plantar artery and nerve, Flexor hallucis longus tendon (cut), 
Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Second Layer Anatomy

Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Second Layer Anatomy


Muscles of Plantar Region of Foot: Second Layer Anatomy
Proper plantar digital nerves, Proper plantar digital nerves, Flexor digiti minimi brevis muscle, Superficial branch and, Deep branch of lateral plantar nerve, Lateral plantar nerve and artery, Quadratus plantae muscle, Abductor digiti minimi muscle (cut), Nerve to abductor digiti minimi muscle (from lateral plantar nerve), 

Wednesday, November 13, 2019

Nerves of Pelvic Viscera Male Anatomy

Nerves of Pelvic Viscera Male Anatomy


Nerves of Pelvic Viscera: Male Anatomy
Anterior vagal trunk, Posterior vagal trunk and, Celiac branch, Inferior phrenic arteries and plexuses, Left gastric artery and gastric plexus, Celiac ganglia, plexus, and trunk, Left aorticorenal ganglion, Superior mesenteric ganglion, Superior mesenteric artery and plexus, Intermesenteric (abdominal aortic) plexus, Inferior mesenteric ganglion, artery, and plexus, Ureter and ureteric plexus, Superior hypogastric plexus, Superior rectal artery and plexus, 
Nerves of External Genitalia: Male Anatomy

Nerves of External Genitalia: Male Anatomy


Nerves of External Genitalia: Male Anatomy
Celiac ganglia, Superior mesenteric ganglion, Aorticorenal ganglia, Lumbar splanchnic nerves, Inferior mesenteric ganglion, Superior hypogastric plexus, Testicular artery and plexus, Hypogastric nerves, Inferior hypogastric (pelvic) plexus, Ductus (vas) deferens and plexus, Testicular artery and plexus, Femoral nerve, Dorsal nerves of penis, 
Arteries and Veins of Perineum: Male Anatomy

Arteries and Veins of Perineum: Male Anatomy


Arteries and Veins of Perineum: Male Anatomy
Dartos fascia of scrotum, Septum of scrotum, Posterior scrotal arteries, Deep (Buck’s) fascia of penis, Superficial perineal (Colles’) fascia (cut edge), Superficial perineal space (opened), Perineal artery and vein, Internal pudendal artery passes superior to perineal membrane, Superficial transverse perineal muscle and transverse perineal artery (cut and reflected), Internal pudendal vessels and pudendal nerve (cut) in pudendal canal (Alcock’s) (opened up), 

Monday, November 11, 2019

MEDIASTINUM

MEDIASTINUM


MEDIASTINUM
The mediastinum is that portion of the thorax that lies between the right and left pleural sacs and is bounded ventrally by the sternum and dorsally by the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. The superior boundary of the mediastinum is defined by the thoracic inlet, and its inferior boundary is formed by the diaphragm. By convention, the mediastinum is divided into superior and inferior parts by a plane extending horizontally from the base of the fourth vertebral body to the angle of the sternum. The superior mediastinum contains the aortic arch; the brachiocephalic (innominate) artery; the beginnings of the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries; the right pulmonary artery trunk; the right and left brachiocephalic (innominate) veins as they come together to form the superior vena cava; the trachea with right and left vagus, cardiac, phrenic, and left recurrent laryngeal nerves; the esophagus and the thoracic duct; most of the thymus; the superficial part of the cardiac plexus; and a few lymph nodes.
BRONCHIAL ARTERIES

BRONCHIAL ARTERIES


BRONCHIAL ARTERIES
The lungs receive blood from two sets of arteries. The pulmonary arteries follow the bronchi and ramify into capillary networks that surround the alveoli, allowing exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The bronchial arteries derive from the aorta. They supply oxygenated blood to the tissues of the lung that are not in close proximity to inspired air, such as the muscular walls of the larger pulmonary vessels and airways (to the level of the respiratory bronchioles) and the visceral pleurae. The origin of the right bronchial artery is quite variable. It arises frequently from the third right posterior intercostal artery (the first right aortic intercostal artery) and descends to reach the posterior aspects of the right main bronchus. It may arise from a common stem with the left inferior bronchial artery, which origi- nates from the descending aorta slightly inferior to the point where the left main bronchus crosses it. Or it may arise from the inferior aspect of the arch of the aorta and course behind the trachea to reach the posterior wall of the right main bronchus.
RELATIONSHIPS OF THE TRACHEA AND MAIN BRONCHI

RELATIONSHIPS OF THE TRACHEA AND MAIN BRONCHI


RELATIONSHIPS OF THE TRACHEA AND MAIN BRONCHI
The trachea begins at the lower border of the larynx (just below the cricoid cartilage) at about the level of the sixth cervical vertebra and ends at about the level of the upper border of the fifth thoracic vertebra, where it divides into the two main bronchi. The thyroid gland lies on the anterior and both lateral aspects of the highest part of the trachea.
Medial Surface Of The Lungs

Medial Surface Of The Lungs


Medial Surface Of The Lungs
The medial (mediastinal) surfaces of the right and left lungs present concave mirror images of the right and left sides of the mediastinum so that in addition to the structures forming the root of the lung, the medial lung surface presents distinct impressions made by the structures constituting the mediastinum (see Plates 1-18 and 1-19).
Bronchopulmonary Segments

Bronchopulmonary Segments


Bronchopulmonary Segments
A bronchopulmonary segment is that portion of the lung supplied by the primary branch of a lobar bronchus. Each segment is surrounded by connective tissue that is continuous with visceral pleura and forms a separate, functionally independent respiratory unit. The artery supplying a segment follows the segmental bronchus but the segmental veins are at the periphery of the segment and thus can be helpful in delineating it.
Circulatory System: Heart Chambers

Circulatory System: Heart Chambers


Circulatory System: Heart Chambers
Time period: day 22
Dividing the heart into chambers
Heart septa appear during week 5 and divide the heart tube into four chambers between days 27 and 37. The septa form as inward growths of endocardium separating the atrial and ventricular chambers, splitting the atrium into left and right, and splitting the ventricle and bulbus cordis into left and right ventricles, respectively (Figure 28.1). The atrioventricular canal connects the primitive atrium and ventricle. At the end of week 4 the endocardium of the anterior and posterior walls of the atrioventricular canal thicken and bulge outwards into the canal’s lumen. These are the endocardial cushions and by the end of week 6 they meet in the middle, splitting the atrioventricular canal into two canals (Figure 28.1).
Formation Of The Heart Tube

Formation Of The Heart Tube


Circulatory System: Heart Tube
Time period: days 16–28
Formation Of The Heart Tube
During the third week of development blood islands appear in the lateral plate mesoderm (Figure 27.1) from angioblasts that accumulate as a syncytium (rather like the formation of the syncytiotrophoblast that we saw form during the development of the placenta in Chapter 13). From these cells new blood cells and blood vessels form through vasculogenesis. Blood islands at the cranial end of the embryo merge and assemble a horseshoe‐shaped tube lined with endothelial cells which curves around the embryo in the plane of the mesoderm.
Musculoskeletal System: Limbs

Musculoskeletal System: Limbs


Musculoskeletal System: Limbs
Time period: week 4 to adult
Introduction
Limb development has been studied in great detail, although it is not entirely clear how it is initiated. The mechanisms by which the cells of the early limb are organised, and the fates of those cells, have been explored for decades, as aberrations of these processes cause gross limb abnormalities.
Muscular System

Muscular System


Muscular System
Time period: day 22 to week 9
Introduction
Most muscle cells originate from the paraxial mesoderm (Figure 25.1), and specifically the myotome portion of the somites. The three types of muscle described here are skeletal, smooth and cardiac muscle.
Skeletal System

Skeletal System


Skeletal System
Time period: day 27 to birth
Introduction
Cells for the developing skeleton come from a variety of sources. We have described the development of the somites, and the subdivision of the sclerotome (see Chapter 22). Those cells are joined by contributions from the somatic mesoderm and migrating neural crest cells.
Development of the skeleton can be split into two parts: the axial skeleton consisting of the cranium, vertebral column, ribs and sternum; and the appendicular skeleton of the limbs.
Skeletal System (Ossification)

Skeletal System (Ossification)


Skeletal System (Ossification)
Time period: week 5 to adult
Introduction
Mesodermal cells form most bones and cartilage. Initially an embryonic, loosely organised connective tissue forms from mesoderm throughout the embryo, referred to as mesenchyme. Neural crest cells that migrate into the pharyngeal arches are also involved in the development of bones and other connective tissues in the head and neck (see Chapters 41–44).

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