pediagenosis
Article Update
Loading...

Wednesday, June 9, 2021

VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY AND VITAMIN K ANTAGONISTS

VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY AND VITAMIN K ANTAGONISTS

VITAMIN K DEFICIENCY AND VITAMIN K ANTAGONISTS

POTENTIAL CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARFARIN USE
POTENTIAL CLINICAL CONSEQUENCES OF WARFARIN USE


Vitamin K is an essential nutrient that is required as a cofactor for the production of a handful of coagulation cascade proteins. It is a fat-soluble vitamin that is efficiently stored in the human body. Vitamin K deficiency is rare and is typically seen only transiently in neonates and infants during the first 6 months of life. Affected neonates may show abnormally prolonged bleeding after minor trauma. Patients may have an elevated pro- thrombin time (PT) and decreased serum levels of vitamin K and coagulation factors. Therapy consists of replacement of vitamin K to normal levels and a search for any possible underlying cause, such as liver or gastrointestinal disease. Neonatal and infantile vitamin K deficiency is most likely caused by maternal breast milk insufficiency of vitamin K.

VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY

VITAMIN A DEFICIENCY


Vitamin A deficiency, also known as phrynoderma, is a multisystem disorder caused by a deficiency of vitamin A, either from lack of intake or from a decrease in normal absorption. Vitamin A is a fat-soluble essential vitamin that is stored in the fatty tissue and liver. Humans require a nutritional source for this vitamin. Foods high in vitamin A include all yellow vegetables (including carrots), green leafy vegetables, liver, milk, eggs, tomatoes, and fish oils. Many other food staples contain vitamin A. Hippocrates may have been the first to describe vitamin A deficiency and a therapy for it. However, it was not until the early twentieth century that scientists recognized the different forms of vitamin A and its carotene precursors.

Tuesday, June 8, 2021

Muscles of Larynx Anatomy

Muscles of Larynx Anatomy

Muscles of Larynx Anatomy

Muscles of Larynx Anatomy


1. Oblique arytenoid muscles

2. Transverse arytenoid muscles

Origin: Arise from the arytenoid cartilages.

Insertion: Attach to the opposite arytenoid cartilage.

Action: Close the inlet of the larynx by adducting the arytenoid cartilages. This narrows the rima glottidis, the space between the vocal folds.

Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Stylohyoid muscle


1. Stylohyoid muscle

Origin: Arises from the styloid process of the temporal bone.

Insertion: Attaches to the body of the hyoid bone.

Action: Elevates and retracts the hyoid bone in an action that elongates the floor of the mouth.

Innervation: Facial nerve.

Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx Anatomy

Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx Anatomy

Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx Anatomy

Intrinsic Muscles of Larynx Anatomy


1. Cricothyroid muscle

Origin: Arises from the anterolateral part of the cricoid cartilage.

Insertion: Inserts into the inferior aspect and inferior horn of the thyroid cartilage.

Action: Stretches and tenses the vocal folds.

Innervation: External branch of the superior laryngeal nerve of the vagus.

Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Infrahyoid and Suprahyoid Muscles Anatomy

Sternohyoid muscle


1. Sternohyoid muscle

Origin: Manubrium of the sternum and medial portion of the clavicle.

Insertion: Body of the hyoid bone.

Action: Depresses the hyoid bone after swallowing.

Innervation: C1, C2, and C3 from the ansa cervicalis.

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy

Muscles of Neck: Anterior View Anatomy


1. Sternocleidomastoid muscle

Origin (inferior attachment): This muscle has 2 heads of origin. The sternal head arises from the anterior surface of the manubrium of the sternum. The clavicular head arises from the superior surface of the medial third of the clavicle.

Insertion (superior attachment): Attaches to the lateral surface of the mastoid process of the temporal bone and the lateral half of the superior nuchal line.

Muscles of Pharynx Anatomy

Muscles of Pharynx Anatomy

Muscles of Pharynx Anatomy

Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle


1. Superior pharyngeal constrictor muscle

Origin: This broad muscle arises from the pterygoid hamulus, pterygomandibular raphe, posterior portion of the mylohyoid line of the mandible, and side of the tongue.

Insertion: The muscles from each side meet and attach to the median raphe of the pharynx and pharyngeal tubercle of the occipital bone.

Resuscitation

Resuscitation

Resuscitation

Figure 1-1 Pediatric and adult airway anatomy.
Figure 1-1 Pediatric and adult airway anatomy.


Cardiopulmonary gency interventi or in respiratory extre PR)  is the series of emergency interventions provided to a person who appears dead or in respiratory extremis, with the goal of restoring vital functions through optimization of cardiac output and tissue oxygen delivery. The two main components are external cardiac massage (chest compressions) and assisted respirations.

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures

Functional Correlations and Visualization of Brain Structures


Although many, if not most, brain functions involve coordinated interaction among multiple brain structures and each portion of the brain is connected to almost every other portion, some functions are loosely associated with certain regions. For example, the somatosensory (motor­sensory and sensorimotor) regions of the frontal and parietal lobes and the premotor cortex of the frontal lobe are involved with initiation, activation, and performance of motor activity and reception of primary sensations.

Anatomy Physiology

[AnatomyPhysiology][recentbylabel2]

Featured

[Featured][recentbylabel2]
Notification
This is just an example, you can fill it later with your own note.
Done