pediagenosis
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Tuesday, January 31, 2023

BRONCHIAL ARTERIES

BRONCHIAL ARTERIES


BRONCHIAL ARTERIES

BRONCHIAL ARTERIES

The lungs receive blood from two sets of arteries. The pulmonary arteries follow the bronchi and ramify into capillary networks that surround the alveoli, allowing exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide. The bronchial arteries derive from the aorta. They supply oxygenated blood to the tissues of the lung that are not in close proximity to inspired air, such as the muscular walls of the larger pulmonary vessels and airways (to the level of the respiratory bronchioles) and the visceral pleurae. The origin of the right bronchial artery is quite variable. It arises frequently from the third right posterior intercostal artery (the first right aortic intercostal artery) and descends to reach the posterior aspects of the right main bronchus. It may arise from a common stem with the left inferior bronchial artery, which origi- nates from the descending aorta slightly inferior to the point where the left main bronchus crosses it. Or it may arise from the inferior aspect of the arch of the aorta and course behind the trachea to reach the posterior wall of the right main bronchus.
Musculoskeletal System: Limbs

Musculoskeletal System: Limbs


Musculoskeletal System: Limbs

Musculoskeletal System: Limbs, Limb buds, Distal growth, Dermatomes and myotomes,


Time period: week 4 to adult
Introduction
Limb development has been studied in great detail, although it is not entirely clear how it is initiated. The mechanisms by which the cells of the early limb are organised, and the fates of those cells, have been explored for decades, as aberrations of these processes cause gross limb abnormalities.
MEDIASTINUM

MEDIASTINUM


MEDIASTINUM

MEDIASTINUM

The mediastinum is that portion of the thorax that lies between the right and left pleural sacs and is bounded ventrally by the sternum and dorsally by the bodies of the thoracic vertebrae. The superior boundary of the mediastinum is defined by the thoracic inlet, and its inferior boundary is formed by the diaphragm. By convention, the mediastinum is divided into superior and inferior parts by a plane extending horizontally from the base of the fourth vertebral body to the angle of the sternum. The superior mediastinum contains the aortic arch; the brachiocephalic (innominate) artery; the beginnings of the left common carotid and left subclavian arteries; the right pulmonary artery trunk; the right and left brachiocephalic (innominate) veins as they come together to form the superior vena cava; the trachea with right and left vagus, cardiac, phrenic, and left recurrent laryngeal nerves; the esophagus and the thoracic duct; most of the thymus; the superficial part of the cardiac plexus; and a few lymph nodes.
Topography Of The Lungs (Posterior View)

Topography Of The Lungs (Posterior View)


Topography Of The Lungs (Posterior View)

Topography Of The Lungs (Posterior View)


The apex of the lung extends as far superiorly as the vertebral end of the first rib and therefore as high as the first thoracic vertebra. From there, the lung extends inferiorly as far as the diaphragm, with the base of the lung resting on the diaphragm and fitted to its superior surface. Because of the diaphragm’s domed shape, the level of the highest point on the base of the right lung is about at the eighth to ninth thoracic vertebrae. The highest point on the base of the left lung is a fraction of an inch lower. From these high points, the bases of the two lungs follow the curves of the diaphragm to reach the levels described earlier for the inferior borders of the lungs.
Skeletal System

Skeletal System


Skeletal System
Skeletal System, Cranium, Viscerocranium, Neurocranium, Vertebrae, Axial bones, Appendicular bones, Clinical relevance



Time period: day 27 to birth
Introduction
Cells for the developing skeleton come from a variety of sources. We have described the development of the somites, and the subdivision of the sclerotome (see Chapter 22). Those cells are joined by contributions from the somatic mesoderm and migrating neural crest cells.
Development of the skeleton can be split into two parts: the axial skeleton consisting of the cranium, vertebral column, ribs and sternum; and the appendicular skeleton of the limbs.
Arteries and Veins of Perineum and Uterus Anatomy

Arteries and Veins of Perineum and Uterus Anatomy


Arteries and Veins of Perineum and Uterus Anatomy
Arteries and Veins of Perineum and Uterus Anatomy


Round ligament, Tubal, Ovarian, Uterine vessels, Ureter, Vaginal branches of uterine artery, Vaginal artery, Levator ani muscle, Perineal membrane, Internal pudendal artery, Perineal artery, Superficial perineal space, Superficial perineal (Colles’) fascia, Posterior labial artery, Ischiocavernosus muscle, Bulbospongiosus muscle, Superficial perineal space, Perineal membrane, Perineal artery, Superficial transverse perineal muscle, Perineal artery, Internal pudendal artery in pudendal canal (Alcock’s), Inferior rectal artery, External anal sphincter muscle.
Arteries and Veins of Pelvis Male Anatomy

Arteries and Veins of Pelvis Male Anatomy


Arteries and Veins of Pelvis: Male Anatomy

Arteries and Veins of Pelvis: Male Anatomy


Common iliac arteries, Lateral sacral artery, Right Internal iliac vessels, Inferior epigastric vessels, Urinary bladder, Prostate gland, Prostatic venous plexus, Cavernous vein, Ureter, Median sacral artery and vein, Superior gluteal artery, Umbilical artery, Superficial dorsal vein of penis, Deep dorsal vein and left dorsal artery of penis, 

Monday, January 30, 2023

Arteries of Pelvis: Female Anatomy

Arteries of Pelvis: Female Anatomy


Arteries of Pelvis: Female Anatomy

Arteries of Pelvis: Female Anatomy


Median sacral artery, Iliolumbar artery, Lateral sacral arteries, Superior gluteal artery, Piriformis muscle, Inferior gluteal artery, Internal pudendal artery, Coccygeus muscle, Sacrotuberous ligament, Obturator fascia (of obturator internus muscle), Internal pudendal artery in pudendal canal (Alcock’s), Levator ani muscle (cut edge), Internal iliac artery, Posterior division, Anterior division, External iliac artery, Obturator artery, Umbilical artery (patent part), Middle rectal artery, Uterine artery, Vaginal artery, Accessory obturator artery, Superior vesical arteries, 

Sunday, January 29, 2023

SIMPLE CYSTS

SIMPLE CYSTS


SIMPLE CYSTS

SIMPLE CYSTS


Renal cysts sometimes  occur as part of an  inherited disease, such as polycystic kidney disease (see Plate 2-15), nephronophthisis/medullary cystic kidney disease (see Plate 2-18), tuberous sclerosis, or von Hippel-Lindau syndrome. In clinical practice, however, most renal cysts are sporadic and incidentally discovered during abdominal imaging performed for some other indication. Such cysts, known as “simple cysts,” are very common among adults over the age of 50 and rarely cause symptoms.
Causes Of Liver Failure

Causes Of Liver Failure


Causes Of Liver Failure
Causes Of Liver Failure

Currently, approximately 85% of liver transplants in the UK are undertaken in adults, the remainder in children. Most (85%) are for chronic liver disease, with only a few for acute liver failure.

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