Anatomy of the Basal Ganglia and Related Structures
For the past 30 years, movement disorders have encompassed the study of a group of conditions characterized by poverty of movement, the akinetic-rigid syndromes, and those with excessive movements, the hyperkinetic movement disorders (tremor, dystonia, myoclonus, chorea/ballism, tics, and others). This traditional view, in which disorders of basal ganglia resulted in the aforementioned syndromes, has now expanded to include the ataxias and disorders of gait and posture. Advances in surgical techniques and imaging studies have broadened the clinical horizon and catchments of the movement disorders specialist. With the increasing indications for botulinum toxin therapy, spasticity and others disorders are now managed by many movement disorders neurologists.