Arteries of Oral and Pharyngeal Regions Anatomy
1. Middle meningeal artery
2. Buccal artery
3. External carotid artery
4. Superior thyroid artery
5. Common carotid artery
6. Internal carotid artery
7. Facial artery
8. Maxillary artery
9. Superficial temporal artery
Comment: Arteries of the oral and pharyngeal regions arise princi- pally from branches of the external carotid artery. The external carotid gives rise to 8 branches: the superior thyroid artery, lingual artery, facial artery, ascending pharyngeal artery, occipital artery, posterior auricular artery, maxillary artery, and superficial temporal artery.
The maxillary artery contributes many branches to the infratemporal region, nasal cavities, and muscles of mastication. Descriptively, the maxillary artery is divided into 3 parts (some of its branches are shown in this figure).
The 1st (retromandibular) portion of this artery gives rise to branches supplying the tympanic cavity and membrane, dura, mandibular teeth and gums, ear, and chin. The 2nd (pterygoid) portion supplies the muscles of mastication and the buccinator. The 3rd (pterygopalatine) part supplies the maxillary teeth and gums, portions of the face, orbit, palate, auditory tube, superior pharynx, paranasal sinuses, and nasal cavity.
Clinical: Anastomoses among the branches of the facial and maxillary arteries are common and provide some collateral circulation to the face if 1 artery is compromised.