Superficial Veins and Arteries of Neck Anatomy
1. Facial artery and vein
2. Retromandibular vein
3. External jugular vein
4. Anterior jugular vein
5. Common carotid artery
6. Internal jugular vein
7. Superior thyroid artery and vein
8. External carotid artery
Comment: Superficial veins of the neck include the external jugular vein and its principal tributaries. The external jugular vein often communicates with the internal jugular vein, which lies deep within the carotid sheath.
The principal arteries of the neck include major branches arising from the subclavian artery (thyrocervical and costocervical trunks) and several branches arising from the external carotid artery.
Clinical: Physicians use the internal jugular vein (or external jugular) on the right side to assess the jugular venous pulse, which provides an indication of the venous pressure in the right atrium of the heart. If the waveform pattern of the pulse is abnormal, it may indicate some pathology associated with right-sided congestive heart failure, a tricuspid valve problem, or some other abnormality.