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Main CNS neurotransmitters and their function

Main CNS neurotransmitters and their function
Amino acids
Excitatory
Glutamate Widespread throughout CNS 1. Inotropic: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA); and non-NMDA receptors including α-amino-5- hydroxy-3-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA); kainate and quisqualate receptors 
Epilepsy (Ch. 61)
Inhibitory
γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)
2. Metabotropic Excitotoxic cell death (Ch. 60)
Widespread throughout CNS GABA-A Spinal cord motor disorders (Ch. 37) GABA-B Epilepsy (Ch. 61) Anxiety (Ch. 59)
Glycine Spinal cord Glycine Startle syndromes (Ch. 35) Monoamines*
Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)
Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)


Main CNS neurotransmitters and their function  Amino acids  Excitatory  Glutamate Widespread throughout CNS 1. Inotropic: N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA); and non-NMDA receptors including α-amino-5- hydroxy-3-methyl-4-isoxazole propionic acid (AMPA); kainate and quisqualate receptors   Epilepsy (Ch. 61)  Inhibitory  γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)  2. Metabotropic Excitotoxic cell death (Ch. 60)  Widespread throughout CNS GABA-A Spinal cord motor disorders (Ch. 37) GABA-B Epilepsy (Ch. 61) Anxiety (Ch. 59)  Glycine Spinal cord Glycine Startle syndromes (Ch. 35) Monoamines*  Noradrenaline (norepinephrine)  Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine; 5-HT)

Locus coeruleus to whole CNS (Ch. 57)
Postganglionic sympathetic nervous system (Ch. 3)
Raphé nucleus in brainstem to whole CNS (Ch. 57)
α1; α2 Depression (Ch. 57)
β1; β2 Autonomic failure (Ch. 3)
5-HT1 (A–F) Depression (Ch. 57)
5-HT2 (A–C) Anxiety (Ch. 59)
5-HT3–5–HT7 Migraine


Dopamine Nigrostriatal pathway in basal ganglia (Ch. 41)
D1–D5 receptors cause an increase in intracellular
Parkinson’s disease (Ch. 42)
Mesolimbic and mesocortical pathways (Chs 47)
cAMP on activation Schizophrenia (Ch. 58)
Retina (Ch. 24) D2 receptors cause a decrease in intracellular cAMP on activation
Control of pituitary hormone secretion (Ch. 11)
Hypothalamic–pituitary projection (Ch. 11)
D3–D4 are independent of cAMP signalling system
Control of vomiting Drug addiction (Ch. 47)
Acetylcholine Neuromuscular junction (Ch. 16) Nicotinic Disorders of the neuromuscular junction (Ch. 16)
Autonomic nervous system (Ch. 3) Muscarinic (M1–M3 subtypes) Autonomic failure (Ch. 3)
Basal forebrain to cerebral cortex and limbic system (Ch. 45 and 60)
Interneurones in many CNS structures including striatum (Ch. 41)
Neuropeptides Widespread distribution in CNS but especially found in:
   dorsal horn of spinal cord (Ch. 32 and 33)
   basal ganglia (Ch. 41)
   autonomic nervous system (Ch. 3)
 Dementia of the Alzheimer type (Ch. 60)
Parkinson’s disease (Ch. 42) Epilepsy (Ch. 61) Sleep–wake cycle (Ch. 43)
Various See:
   Pain systems (Ch. 33 and 37)
   Basal ganglia (Ch. 41)
   Autonomic nervous system (Ch. 3)
   Neural plasticity (Ch. 48)
   Anxiety (Ch. 60)
   Sleep (Ch. 43)